Guidelines and Policies
INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS: WHAT TO KNOW BEFORE SUBMITTING AN ARTICLE
The Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology/ Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia (BJAN) is the official journal of the Brazil- ian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA), which supports the journal completely – the cost of publishing is on behalf of the Society, with no charges to authors.
The BJAN publishes original work in all areas of anesthesia, surgical critical care, perioperative medicine and pain medicine, including basic, translational and clinical research, as well as education and technological innovation. In addition, the Journal publishes review articles, relevant case reports, pictorial essays or contextualized images, special articles, correspondence, and letters to the editor. Special articles such as guidelines and historical manuscripts are published upon invitation only, and authors should seek subject approval by the Editorial Office before submission.
Before submitting a manuscript, authors should read the present Instructions to authors carefully and ad here tot hem.Manuscripts must be submitted electronically via the Journal’s online submission system <http://www.evise.com/evise/jrnl/BJAN> and receipt will be acknowledged by e-mail. Problems with submissions should be reported to the Editorial Office. Decisions on submissions are final and will take place in approximately eight to 12 weeks.
The BJAN accepts only original articles that are not under consideration by any other journal and that have not been published before, except as academic theses or abstracts presented at conference or meetings. A cloud-based intuitive platform is used to compare submitted manuscripts to previous publications, and submissions must not contain any instances of plagiarism. Authors must obtain and send the Editorial Office all required permissions for any overlapping material and properly identify them in the manuscript to avoid plagiarism.
All articles submitted for publication are assessed by two or more members of the Editorial Board or external peer reviewers, assigned at the discretion of the Editor- in-chief or the Associate editors.
All editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief.
Types of article
Articles must follow the specifications presented below regarding the maximum number of words in the manuscript and abstract, references, tables, and figures, as well as the format of the abstract.
|Type of manuscript||Words||References||Tables or figures||Abstract|
|Clinical or experimental trials||3,000||30||6||Structured up to 250 words|
|Systematic reviews||4,000||60||6||Structured up to 250 words|
|Pictorial essays||3,000||30||12||Unstructured up to 250 words|
|Special articles and Narrative reviews||4,000||100||4||Unstructured up to 250 words|
|Clinical information or Case reports||1,500||5||2||Unstructured up to 100 words|
- Clinical or experimental trials: primary clinical, observational or experimental research information. Each kind of study will contain different elements. Authors can include supplementary material for exclusive online publication, and such material should be part of the submission letter. A copy or link of the ethical approval of the study, as well as its registry, must be submitted along with the manuscript. For a list of registry platforms for clinical trials, assess: <http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/>. Brazilian researchers are advised to register at ReBEC: . Keep reading for additional details regarding ethical requirements for publishing.
- Review articles: as a rule, narrative reviews are written by invitation from the Editor-in-chief. If you were not invited, before submitting a review you should contact the Editor-in-chief, who will evaluate the appropriateness of the proposal to the Journal, avoiding publishing duplications. Systematic review, as well as scoping review, rapid review, state of art review and overview of reviews can be considered for publication. For Systematic reviews, authors should register the review protocol in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Also, authors must state the review protocol in the Methods section and indicate where it can be accessed. Summarize sections by pulling together the implications of main findings, avoiding just the repetition of the results of previously published studies, searching for an expanded evidence-based conclusion. Incorporating the results of a new study with previous relevant studies in a meta-analysis is encouraged.
- Short communications and case reports: BJAN only accepts for publication clinical information or case reports that describe innovations, novelties or new clinical approaches for already established clinical problems. They must contain impactful information, other than just the introduction of techniques, methods or medical devices. A copy of the Institutional Research Board approval must be submitted along with case reports. If any kind of patient image is used, it must be unidentified and anonymized and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family and submitted along with the report.
- Letters to the editor: Letters to the editor should include constructive, objective and educational comments on already published BJAN papers or be “freestanding”. Reporting research findings or cases reports as letters to the editor is not advised. “Freestanding” letters to the editor may discuss matters of interest to readers without linkage to papers already published in BJAN. Letters will be published at the sole discretion of the Editor-in-chief.
English is the official language of BJAN, which receives submissions in English and Portuguese. After acceptance, articles will be published both in English and Portuguese
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in the Instructions to Authors document for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present at submission:
- Cover letter;
- Title page;
- Designation of the corresponding author with contact details: e-mail address; Full postal address; ORCID iD;
- All authors must add their e-mail and ORCID in the submission system. More information about this in the AUTHORSHIP section;
- Copy or link for the Institutional Research Board approval of the submission, if applicable
- The link for the study registry, if applicable;
- Upload of all specific files for the study design: abstract including keywords; manuscript including references; all figures (including relevant captions); all tables (including titles, description, footnotes) – ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided –; supplemental files (where applicable);
- Manuscript has been “spell checked” and “grammar checked”;
- All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa;
- Completed reporting guideline checklist;
- Link for the data repository, if applicable;
- Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet);
- Relevant declarations of interest have been made.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
- Studies in animals: All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines <http://www.equatornetwork.org/reporting-guidelines/ improving-bioscience-research-reporting -the-arrive-guidelines-for-reportinganimal-research/> and should be carried out in accordance with local country regulation. It is fundamental to clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and when appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study. The article must provide the genotype, strain, source, and number of backcrosses and age of animals studied.
- Studies in humans: If the article involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the research described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. Privacy rights must always be observed.
The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly. It is recommendable to use the words “male” and “female” (and other sexes/genders as appropriate) when speaking about a patient’s sex. The numbers and percentages of both male, female and other sexes/ genders must be reported in the text and/or tables. The manuscript must contain data on the age (mean with range), height (m), weight (kg), sex, criteria for selection, health conditions, among others that are significant to study results. It is better to present more complex information in a table to facilitate the understanding of the data.
- Informed consent and patient details: Studies on patients or volunteers require Institutional Ethical Committee or Internal Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained when an author wishes to include case details, other personal information or images of patients or any other individuals.
- If any kind of patient image is used, it must be deidentificated and anonymized, and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family and submitted along with the manuscript or case report. Unless you have written permission from the patient or patient’s relatives (when applicable), personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
- The author must retain written consents before submitting the article, but copies should not be provided to the journal. If specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example, if a legal issue arises), the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained.
BJAN mandates the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any health research manuscript. Guidance on each type of study can be found on the EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency Of health Research) Network website or below in the section “What reporting guideline to use”.
Authors must submit completed checklists for the relevant reporting guidelines (and flow diagram if applicable) that they followed along with the manuscript, indicating the manuscript page on which each checklist item is found. Editable checklists for reporting guidelines can be found on the EQUATOR Network website, which also gives general information on how to choose the correct reporting guideline and why the guidelines are important. Using a checklist helps to ensure that the reporting guideline was used correctly.
Your article should report at least the content addressed by each item of the identified checklist or state that the item was not considered in the study and, if relevant, the reason why not (for example, if you did not use blinding, your article should explain it). Meeting these basic reporting requirements will greatly improve the value of your manuscript, may facilitate/enhance the peer review process, and may enhance its chances for eventual publication.
Checklists are not simply an administrative hurdle. We ask you to complete a checklist because this helps you to notice if you have not included all the important information in your article, and because it helps our editors and reviewers to complete the same check. If the checklist indicates an item that you have not addressed in your manuscript, please either explain in the manuscript text why this information is not relevant to your study or add the relevant information.
What reporting guideline to use
If you are reporting research on an intervention, treatment, exposure, or protective factor on human subjects:
- Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies
- Use the CONSORT guideline or one of its extensions:
- If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/ exposure/etc. under study, AND
- You controlled which intervention/ exposure/etc. they each received, AND
- You used a random allocation method to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received.
i.e.: a randomized controlled trial.
- Use the STROBE guideline or one of its extensions:
- If you selected your participants after they received the intervention/ exposure/etc. under study, OR
- You selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study AND you did not control which intervention/exposure/ etc. they received (they decided/their doctor decided/life just happened).
i.e.: an observational study.
- Use the TREND guideline:
- If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/ exposure/etc. under study, AND
- If CARE, CONSORT, and STROBE are not applicable to your research AND
- you used a non-random way to decide which intervention/exposure/ etc. your participants received, such as which hospital they went to or what their clinical symptoms were.
i.e.: a non-randomized trial.
- If you are reporting a protocol.
- Use the SPIRIT guideline for the protocol of a clinical trial.
- Use the PRISMA-P guideline for the protocol of a systematic review.
- If you are reporting a literature review:
- Use the ENTREQ guideline for a review of studies that use descriptive data, such as unstructured interviews (qualitative data).
- Use the MOOSE guideline for a review of observational studies.
- Use the PRISMA guideline for any other kind of systematic review or meta-analysis.
- If you are reporting on animal research:
- Use the ARRIVE guideline for research on animals in a lab.
- Use the REFLECT guideline for research on livestock.
- If you are reporting descriptive data (either alone or alongside quantitative data):
- Use the COREQ guideline for reporting unstructured interviews and focus groups.
- Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies.
- Use the SRQR guideline for any other descriptive data (qualitative research).
- If you are reporting research into diagnosis:
- Use the STARD guideline if you compared the accuracy of a diagnostic test with an established reference standard test.
- Use the REMARK guideline if you evaluated the prognostic value of a biomarker.
- Use the TRIPOD guideline if you developed, validated, or updated a prognostic or diagnostic prediction modelling tool.
- If you are reporting research on an intervention or treatment on human subjects:
- Use the TIDIER guideline to fully describe your intervention.
- Use the CHEERS guideline for an economic evaluation of the interventions.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest, then please state: “Conflicts of interest: none”. More information: <http://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/asjsur_coi.pdf>.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, except in the form of an abstract, as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as an electronic preprint.
It also means that the manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out. If accepted, it must not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English, Portuguese or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Ithenticate: <http://www.ithenticate.com/>.
See “Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication”: <http://www.elsevier.com/editors/perk/multiple-duplicate-concurrent-publication-simultaneous-submission>.
At the discretion of the Editorial board, preprints can be shared any time and will not count as prior publication.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Authors should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader. The text should present nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using “he or she”, “his/her” instead of “he” or “his”, and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. “chairperson” instead of “chairman” and “flight attendant” instead of “stewardess”).
BJAN adopts ICMJE criteria for authorship: <http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html>.
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article. All authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure statement.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following:
- The conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
- Final approval of the version to be submitted.
Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address of each author. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a “Present address” (or “Permanent address”) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained, as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. Author affiliations should be presented in increasing hierarchical order (e.g. Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Hospital das Clínicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo) and should be written as established in its own language (e.g. Université Paris-Sorbonne; Harvard University, Universidade de São Paulo).
The ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) must be inserted in all authors’ profiles during the submission process. If any authors do not have an ORCID, they can be registered at <http://orcid.org/register>. Please note that articles with missing ORCID’S will NOT be published.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider the list and order of authors carefully before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor-in-chief. To request such a change, the Editor-in-chief must receive the following from the corresponding author:
- The reason for the change in the author list and
- Written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances the Editor-in-chief will consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor-in-chief considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor-in-chief will result in a corrigendum.
Along with the submission process, authors will be asked to complete the Journal Publishing Agreement <http://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/copyright>. This document includes any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript, in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed) throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the Article is accepted for publication. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the submitted manuscript with a ‘Journal Publishing Agreement” form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
SUBMISSION OF THE ARTICLE/ MANUSCRIPT
Online submission plataform
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files into a single PDF file used in the peer review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the editor’s decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. Submit your article: <http://www.evise.com/evise/jrnl/BJAN>.
BJAN operates a double-blind review process, so remove all data that can identify you or your institution from the text. Reviewers will not know who is responsible for the work when they are reviewing, and the authors will not know who has reviewed their manuscript in any stage of the publication process as well. Thus, the manuscript should not include any identifying information, such as the authors’ names or affiliations.
All peer reviewers will be initially assessed by the Editor-in-chief for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor-in-chief is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles and his or her decision is final.
Use of Word processing software
It is important that the manuscript file be saved in the native format of the Word processor used. The text should be in singlecolumn format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article.
In particular, do not use the Word processor’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.
The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: <http://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/submit-your-paper>. Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required if you embed your figures in the text.
To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the “spell-check” and “grammar-check” functions of your Word processor.
If English is not your native language and the Editor-in-chief asks you to revise orthography of your text, please submit your article for grammar correction of a qualified company, such as American Journal Experts (AJE), Enago and Proof-Reading-Service (PRS), before acceptance for publication. You can also do that before submitting your text for the first time if it makes you feel more comfortable, even if English is your native language.
The editor may require a linguistic revision of the articles submitted in Portuguese or adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (e.g. Keimelion, Atha Editorial, GN1).
An accompanying succinct cover letter should be submitted for every manuscript, focusing on the novelty and value of the author’s work, the relation to the scope of BJAN, and stating why the editor should consider the article for publication. The cover letter will not be part of the final published manuscript
The title page should include:
- The actual title and the running title: the title must be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae if you can. Write the title in the simplest way possible, thinking, “how would I search for this subject in a database or on the internet?”. Do not forget to add the study design in the title, for instance: “randomized clinical trial”, “case report”, “prospective cohort study”, “systematic review”, “narrative review”, among others. Suggest a running or short title, which can be used at the discretion of the Editorial Board.
- Authorship: must contain details of author’s contributions. Describe names and affiliations of all authors, including the ORCID and e-mail. Clearly indicate given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that the spelings for all names are accurate. Please, do not abbreviate authors’ names. Present authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). See above more details about authorship and copyright.
- Corresponding author: clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries regarding the study or the report. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
An abstract, with the headings background, methods, results and conclusion, should provide the context for the research and state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and main conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords in alphabetical order and separated by commas, to represent the content of the article. A specific reporting guideline for abstracts is available at EQUATOR Network. The descriptors or keywords should be based on the Health Science Descriptors (Descritores em Ciências da Saúde, DECS), which are available at <http://www.decs.bvs.br> or on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): www.nlm.nih. gov/mesh/MBrowser.html.
Manuscripts should be subdivided into clearly defined and unnumbered sections. Each subsection must have a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Provide adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Specify the hypothesis which justifies the study. State the objectives of the trial.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published in detail elsewhere should be indicated by a reference citation. However, the authors should describe the methods concisely, assuming that the reader might not have access to the original protocol publication, especially if it is not open access. All modifications from the study protocol should be described.
Results should be clear, concise and contextualized. Avoid the repetition of data in the text and in the tables or figures.
In this subsection,explore the significance of the results of the study, do not repeat them. Confront your data with previous findings, avoiding extensive citations and discussion of already published literature. Discuss the limitations of the study and critically justify them. Emphasize the importance of the study for the current state of art as well as the future perspectives related to the study.
The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusions section.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article, before the references. List those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.).
All references must be presented according to the Vancouver Style, as you can see below, or by accessing the website of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, available at <http://www.icmje.org> recommendations/browse/manuscriptpreparation/preparing-for-submission. html#g. Only the references used in the text, numbered in Arabic numerals and in the order in which they were quoted, should be indicated.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.
If these references are included in the reference list, they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either “Unpublished results” or “Personal communication”.
Citation of a reference as “in press” implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that the data provided in the references are correct.
Note that incorrect surnames, journal/ book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged and can be adopted to cite and link to electronic articles when an article is in press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article.
An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is:
VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., et al (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884.
Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper. Web references The full URL should be given with the date of when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication etc.), should also be presented.
BJAN encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by making mention of them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List, which should include the following elements:
- Author name(s);
- Dataset title;
- Data repository;
- Version (where available);
- Global persistent identifier;
- Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words ‘this issue’ are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–9. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/j.heliyon.2018.e00205.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, https://www.cancerree archuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cances tatsreport [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, et al. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi. org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note: use shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and for more than 6 authors, the first 3 should be listed followed by “et al.”
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated ac