Guidelines and Policies
Instructions to Authors
Before submitting a manuscript, authors should read the present Instructions to authors carefully and adhere to them. Problems with submissions should be reported to the Editorial Office. Decisions on submissions are final and will take place in approximately 8–12 weeks.
The Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (BJAN) is the official journal of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia – SBA), which supports the journal completely – the cost of publishing is on behalf of the SBA, with no charges to authors.
The BJAN publishes original work in all areas of anesthesia, surgery, critical care, perioperative medicine, and pain medicine, including basic, translational, and clinical research, as well as education and technological innovation. Special articles such as guidelines and historical manuscripts are published upon invitation only, and authors should seek subject approval by the Editorial Office before submission.
The BJAN accepts only original articles that are not under consideration by any other journal and that have not been published before, except as academic theses, preprints, or abstracts presented at conferences or meetings, which must be specified in the cover letter. A cloud-based intuitive platform is used to compare manuscripts submitted to previous publications, and submissions must not contain any instances of plagiarism. Authors must obtain and send the Editorial Office all required permissions for any overlapping material and properly identify them in the manuscript to avoid plagiarism.
All articles submitted for publication are assessed by two or more members of the Editorial Board or external peer reviewers, assigned at the discretion of the Editor-in-chief or the Associate Editors.
Since 2021, the Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia (0034-7094) was merged into the Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (0104-0014), adopting English as its main publishing language.
2352-2291 Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (Online)
0104-0014 Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (Print)
The abbreviation of its title is Braz J Anesthesiol, which should be used in bibliographies, footnotes, bibliographic references, and legends.
All editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief.
Types of article
Type of manuscript
Tables + Figures
Structured, up to 250 words
Unstructured, up to 250 words
(Structured for Systematic reviews)
Unstructured, up to 100 words
Letter to the editor
Primary clinical, observational, or experimental research information. Each kind of study will contain different elements. A copy or link of the ethical approval of the study, as well as its registry, must be submitted along with the manuscript. For a list of registry platforms for clinical trials, assess the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Brazilian researchers are advised to register at ReBEC.
Authors should register the review protocol in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) and must state the review protocol in the Methods section and indicate where it can be accessed. Summarize sections by pulling together the implications of main findings, avoiding just the repetition of the results of previously published studies, searching for an expanded evidence-based conclusion. Incorporating the results of a new study with previous relevant studies in a meta-analysis is encouraged.
A systematic review, as well as scoping review, rapid review, state-of-art review, and overview of reviews can be considered for publication.
Scoping reviews may be an exercise to examine emerging evidence and evaluate specific questions before conducting a systematic review, which can later be developed based on it. We suggest registration/publication of scoping review protocols. Examples of databases where scoping reviews may be registered are Open Science Framework (OSF) and Figshare.
Rapid reviews aim to evaluate what is known about specific topics, guiding health policies. The methods are the same as those for systematic reviews, focusing on important points with more liberal protocols of bibliographic research, restricted analysis of gray literature, and a more simplified evaluation of the quality of publications.
A narrative review about most current matters. It may offer different perspectives on the topic or denote areas for future research. This is an important review for the new reader in an area, or whoever is trying to identify potential opportunities for contemporary research.
Overview of reviews
This is a general review of reviews which may or may not include systematic reviews. It provides a broad and often comprehensive summary of an area or topic and it is important for the reader who addresses a subject for the first time.
BJAN only accepts for publication clinical information or case reports that describe innovations, novelties, or new clinical approaches for already established clinical problems. They must contain impactful information other than just the introduction of techniques, methods, or medical devices. A copy of the Institutional Research Board approval or a written informed consent form must be submitted along with case reports. If any kind of patient image is used, it must be unidentified and anonymized and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family, and submitted along with the report.
Letter to the editor
Letters to the editor should include constructive, objective, and educational comments on already published BJAN papers or be “freestanding”. Reporting research findings or case reports as letters to the editor is not advised. “Freestanding” letters to the editor may discuss matters of interest to readers without linkage to papers already published in BJAN. Letters will be published at the sole discretion of the Editor-in-chief.
A short communication is a simple research study with an interesting result. It is unstructured (no subheadings) and has no abstract. It should include basic brief features of background, methods, results, and discussion. If it involves human or animals, ethics approval is required.
Images with clinical relevance for the area.
Editorials must be submitted only with the editor-in-chief’s previous approval.
English (US) is the official language of BJAN, which receives submissions in English and Portuguese. After acceptance, articles will be indexed only in English and a version in Portuguese will be available at BJAN’s website: bjan-sba.org.
Submissions must have the following elements: Cover Letter, Title page, Abstract with Keywords, Manuscript without author’s details (blind), Tables + Figures, BJAN’s Copyright and Agreement form signed by the correspondent author. If accepted, the same form must be submitted signed by all the authors before the article is published. Before submitting, please check the Submission Checklist.
Focus on the novelty and value of the author’s work, the relation to the scope of BJAN, and stating why the editor should consider the article for publication. Specify that the article was not previously published (or if it was published as preprint or academic work). The cover letter will not be part of the final published manuscript.
Also, please indicate word count, including tables, and figures of the manuscript submitted.
At the discretion of the Editorial board, preprints can be shared any time and will not count as prior publication but must be cited in the submission.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, except in the form of an abstract, as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as an electronic preprint. It also means that the manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out.
If accepted, it must not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Your article will be checked by the originality detection service Ithenticate.
The title page should include:
- The actual title and the running title.
- Authorship, with the names, affiliations, ORCID and contributions of all authors, clearly indicating the corresponding author (who will be responsible for all the communications with the journal). If the authors still do not have an ORCID id, it can be registered at <https://orcid.org/>. Do not include any of these in the manuscript itself.
- Copy of or link to the Institutional Research Board approval of the submission and the link to the study registry.
An abstract, with the headings background, methods, results and conclusion, should provide the context for the research and state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific size effects and their statistical significance, if possible), and main conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Please send it as an editable word file (preferably Word).
The title must be concise and informative, as it is often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae if you can, as well as commercial and copyrighted names. Write the title in the simplest way possible, thinking, “how would I search for this subject in a database or on the internet?”
. It must include the study design.
Titles must be written in the same language as the manuscript, with only the first letter in uppercase.
Abstract + Keywords
Must be included as specified above.
Provide adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Specify the hypothesis which justifies the study. State the objectives of the trial.
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published in detail elsewhere should be indicated by a reference citation, describing the methods concisely, as the reader might not have access to the original protocol publication, especially if it is not open access. All modifications from the study protocol should be described.
Results should be clear, concise, and contextualized. Avoid the repetition of data in the text and in the tables or figures.
Explore the significance of the results of the study, without repeating them. Confront your data with previous findings, avoiding extensive citations and discussion of already published literature. Discuss the limitations of the study and critically justify them. Emphasize the importance of the study for the current state-of-art as well as the future perspectives related to the study.
The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusions section.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article, before the references. List those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing help with language, writing assistance, proofreading the article, etc.).
To allow for the creation of links to abstracting and indexing services, please ensure that the data provided in the references are correct. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article.
All references must be numbered (superscript) in the same sequence as they are cited in the text. Please check the maximum according to the type of manuscript.
Tables and figures
All tables and figures must be cited in the text in sequence and be placed only at the end of the file, not in the middle of the text. Please check the maximum of Tables + Figures according to the type of article. They should preferably be sent in an editable file to be translated.
Identify who provided financial support and briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s). If the funding source had no such involvement, it should be stated as well. List funding sources in a standard format to facilitate compliance to funder’s requirements. (i.e., This work was supported by the CNPq [grant number xxxx] and FAPESP [grant number xxxx]). It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards.
When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided it.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: “This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors”.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in the first presentation in the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions. Use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Use of references is preferable.
Ethics in publishing
Studies in animals
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and be carried out in accordance with local country regulations. It is fundamental to clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed and upload the guidelines’ checklist.
It must indicate: the sex of animals and, when appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study; the genotype, strain, source, and number of backcrosses and age of the animals studied.
Studies in humans
If the article involves human subjects, the author should ensure that the research described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. Privacy rights must always be observed.
The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age, and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The manuscript must contain data on the age (mean with range), height (m), weight (kg), sex (male/female, with numbers and percentages), criteria for selection, health conditions, among others that are significant to study results. It is better to present complex information in a table to facilitate understanding of the data.
- Informed consent and patient details: require Institutional Ethical Committee or Internal Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained when an author wishes to include case details, other personal information, or images of patients or any other individuals. Please indicate it was obtained, but there is no need to upload them, unless specifically requested by the journal.
- Images: must be deidentificated and anonymized, and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family and submitted along with the manuscript or case report. If there is no written permission, personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other individuals or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work (Conflicts of Interest Statement). If there are no conflicts of interest, please state: “Conflicts of interest: none”.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Authors should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader. The text should present nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture, or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias.
BJAN adopts ICMJE criteria for authorship. Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article. All authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure statement.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to the following: conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be submitted.
Changes to authorship
Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made before the manuscript has been accepted. To request such a change, the corresponding author must specify the reason for the change in the author list and send written confirmation from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
While the Editor-in-chief considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published, any requests approved by the Editor-in-chief will result in a corrigendum.
Copyright and agreement
At the moment of submission, authors must upload, along with the article, a digital signed copy of the Author’s Agreement and Copyright assignment term. By signing this term, the Author(s), ensures being the copyright owner and licenses to BJAN the exclusive rights of the manuscript submitted. If accepted, Authors assign to BJAN the right to publish and distribute the manuscript in part or in its entirety. Besides, the author(s) assigns and transfers all ownership copyrights regarding the work unto the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA), assignee. Authors can sign altogether or several individual copies.
Along with the submission process, authors will be asked to complete the Journal Publishing Agreement <http://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/copyright>. This document includes any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript, in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed) throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the Article is accepted for publication. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the submitted manuscript with a ‘Journal Publishing Agreement” form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Plagiarism and Editorial misconduct
The BJAN accepts only original articles that are not under consideration by any other journal and that have not been published before, except as academic theses, preprints, or abstracts presented at conferences or meetings. A cloud-based intuitive platform is used to compare submitted manuscripts to previous publications, and submissions must not contain any instances of plagiarism. Authors must obtain and send the Editorial Office all required permissions for any overlapping material and properly identify them in the manuscript to avoid plagiarism.
For more information about Ethics in Publishing in Portuguese, read Scielo’s Good Practices Guide for Ethics in Scientific Publishing.
BJAN mandates the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any health research manuscript. Guidance on each type of study and how to choose the correct reporting guideline can be found on the EQUATOR website, and authors must submit completed checklists for the relevant reporting guidelines (and flow diagram, if applicable) they followed along with the manuscript. Using a checklist helps to ensure that the reporting guideline was used correctly and helps the editors and reviewers to complete the same check. If the checklist indicates an item that you have not addressed in your manuscript, explain in the manuscript text why this information is not relevant to your study or add the relevant information.
Read the article Reporting guidelines: tools to increase the completeness and transparency of your anesthesiology research paper for more on this topic.
What reporting guideline to use
Research on an intervention, treatment, exposure, or protective factor on human subjects
- Use the ACRE guideline to report cases in anesthesia and perioperative medicine.
- Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies.
- Use the CONSORT guideline or one of its extensions: if you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND you controlled which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received, AND you used a random allocation method to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received.
- Use the STROBE guideline or one of its extensions: If you selected your participants after they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, OR you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study AND you did not control which intervention/exposure/etc. they received (they decided/their doctor decided/life just happened).
- Use the TREND guideline if you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND if CARE, CONSORT, and STROBE are not applicable to your research AND you used a non-random way to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. your participants received, such as which hospital they went to or what their clinical symptoms were.
- Use the SPIRIT guideline for the protocol of a clinical trial if you are reporting a protocol.
- Use the ENTREQ guideline for a review of studies that use descriptive data, such as unstructured interviews (qualitative data).
- Use the MOOSE guideline for a review of observational studies.
- Use the PRISMA guideline for any other kind of systematic review or meta-analysis.
- Use the PRISMA-P guideline for the protocol of a systematic review.
- Use the PRISMA ScR guideline for scoping reviews.
- Use the ARRIVE guideline for research on animals in a lab.
- Use the REFLECT guideline for research on livestock.
Descriptive data (either alone or alongside quantitative data)
- Use the COREQ guideline for reporting unstructured interviews and focus groups.
- Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies.
- Use the SRQR guideline for any other descriptive data (qualitative research).
Research into diagnosis
- Use the STARD guideline if you compared the accuracy of a diagnostic test with an established reference standard test.
- Use the REMARK guideline if you evaluated the prognostic value of a biomarker.
- Use the TRIPOD guideline if you developed, validated, or updated a prognostic or diagnostic prediction modelling tool.
Research on an intervention or treatment on human subjects
- Use the TIDieR guideline to fully describe your intervention.
- Use the CHEERS guideline for an economic evaluation of the interventions.
Use of Word processing software
It is important that the manuscript file be saved in the native format of the Word processor used.
The text should be presented:
- In Arial or Times New Roman fonts, size 12, 1,5 line spacing.
- In single single-column format and layout as simple as possible.
- Do not use the Word processor’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words.
- When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.
- All figures and tables must be presented at the end of the manuscript, after the references, and cited in the text.
- To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the “spell-check” and “grammar-check” functions of your Word processor (US English or Brazilian Portuguese).
- Use TAB instead of SPACE for tables and paragraphs.
If English is not your native language and the Editor-in-chief asks you to revise orthography of your text, please submit your article for grammar correction by a qualified company, such as American Journal Experts (AJE), Enago, and Proof-Reading-Service (PRS), before acceptance for publication. You can also do that before submitting your text for the first time if it makes you feel more comfortable, even if English is your native language.
The authors sometimes need to edit images for clarity, although editing for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly.
- No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced;
- Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if, and as long as, they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original;
- Nonlinear adjustments must be disclosed in the figure legend;
- The resolution of the material must be 300+ dpi);
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing in your original artwork;
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text;
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats:
- EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”;
- TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs. For halftones, use a minimum of 300 dpi;
- TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings, use a minimum of 1000 dpi;
- TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale), a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
- Supply files that are optimized for screen use, as the resolution is too low;
- Supply files that are too low in resolution;
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption, which should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration, explaining all symbols and abbreviations used. Supply captions separately, not attached to figures, and keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum.
Please submit tables as editable text, not as images.
They must be placed after the references or on separate pages. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.
Video material and animation sequences are accepted to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article.
This can be done in the same way as a figure or table, by referring to the video or animation content in the body text. All submitted files should be properly labelled so that they directly relate to the video file’s content.
To ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. These files will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect.
Please supply stills, choosing any frame from the video or animation or making a separate image, to be used instead of standard icons, personalizing the link to your video data.
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved. Submit the material with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the “Track Changes” option in any Microsoft Office file, as these will appear in the published supplementary file.
BJAN encourages you to share data that supports your research publication in an appropriate data repository and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. If you are sharing data, you are encouraged to cite it in your manuscript and reference list.
Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, we also encourage you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods, and other useful materials related to the project. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit our policies.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. BJAN collaborates with repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect and others, providing readers access to underlying data that give them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link them by providing the relevant information in the submission system. See more instructions.
For supported data repositories, a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of the data in your submission. If your data is unavailable for access or unsuitable to post, this gives you the opportunity to indicate why. If you submit this form with your manuscript as a supplementary file, the statement will appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before sending it to the journal for review. Ensure that the following items are present at submission:
- Cover letter
- Title page
- Designation of the corresponding author with contact details: e-mail address and ORCID
- Data from all the authors including ORCID
- Copy of or link to the Institutional Research Board approval of the submission, if applicable
- The link to the study registry, if applicable
- Upload of all specific files for the study design: abstract including keywords, manuscript with references; all figures (including relevant captions); all tables (including titles, description, footnotes) – ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided; supplemental files (where applicable)
- Manuscript has been “spell checked” and “grammar checked”
- All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
- Completed reporting guideline checklist
- Link to the data repository, if applicable
- Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
- Relevant declarations of interest have been made.
BJAN operates a double-blind review process, thus the authors must remove from the text all data that can identify them (names, affiliations, etc.) or the institution. Reviewers will not know who is responsible for the work when they are reviewing, and the authors will not know who has reviewed their manuscript at any stage of the publication process as well.
All peer reviewers will be initially assessed by the Editor-in-chief for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor-in-chief is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles, which is final.
One set of page proofs, or a link for access, will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author so that authors can approve them.
Please use this proof only for checking typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables, and figures. Significant changes to the article accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with the permission from the editor.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as the inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is your responsibility.
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All articles published as open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute.
Permitted reuse is defined by the following user license(s):
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): allows users to copy and distribute the Article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes and does not permit further distribution of the Article if it is changed or edited in any way, and provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, and that the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work. The full details of the license are available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
For open access publishing, this journal uses a copyright transfer agreement. Authors will transfer copyright to the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) but will have the right to share their article in the same ways permitted to third parties under the relevant user license, as well as certain scholarly usage rights.
As an author, you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work.
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