Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942012000400010
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Review Article

Uso e rotação de opioides para dor crônica não oncológica

Use and rotation of opioids in chronic non-oncologic pain

Durval Campos Kraychete; Rioko Kimiko Sakata

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Para o tratamento da dor crônica existe a possibilidade de uso prolongado de opioides. Os opioides são eficazes para praticamente todas as síndromes dolorosas crônicas não oncológicas, porém podem causar dependência. O objetivo deste texto é fazer uma revisão sobre o uso e rotação de opioides para dor crônica não oncológica. CONTEÚDO: O uso de opioides potentes é controverso e não são recomendados como medicamentos de primeira linha devido à possibilidade de dependência. Foi descrita tolerância, vício, fatores de risco para vício, rotação ou troca, regras gerais para administração, tabelas de conversão e dicas para prescrição de opioides. CONCLUSÕES: Os opioides são fármacos com eficácia comprovada para dor crônica não oncológica, porém sua prescrição deve ser feita respeitando alguns critérios para reduzir a incidência de efeitos adversos e vício.

Palavras-chave

ANALGÉSICOS, Opioides, efeitos adversos, DOR, Crônica

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prolonged use of opioids is a possibility for chronic pain treatment. Opioids are effective for virtually all chronic non-cancer pain syndromes, but may cause dependence. The aim of this paper is to review the use and rotation of opioids in chronic non-oncologic pain. CONTENT: The use of potent opioids is controversial and not recommended as first-line drugs due to the possibility of dependence. The following topics are described: tolerance, addiction, risk factors for addiction, rotation or replacement, general administration rules, conversion tables, and tips for prescribing opioids. CONCLUSIONS: Opioids are drugs with proven efficacy for chronic non-oncologic pain, but its prescription should meet certain criteria in order to reduce the incidence of adverse effects and addiction.

Keywords

Chronic Pain, Analgesics, Opioid

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