Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942012000300010
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Review Article

Abuso de fármacos anestésicos pelos anestesiologistas

Anesthetic drug abuse by anesthesiologists

Flavia Serebrenic Jungerman; Hamer Nastasy Palhares Alves; Maria José Carvalho Carmona; Nancy Brisola Conti; André Malbergier

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O uso de substâncias psicoativas é um pouco mais alto na classe médica comparado à população geral. Dentre as especialidades médicas, a Anestesiologia é uma das mais atingidas, principalmente por excesso de trabalho e maior acesso aos fármacos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar a literatura sobre o assunto. Para isso, realizou-se uma pesquisa com as palavras-chaves relacionadas ao assunto no MEDLINE, com artigos dos últimos 30 anos. CONTEÚDO: Apesar da droga de maior abuso entre os anestesiologistas ser o álcool, o abuso de agentes anestésicos é o mais preocupante, devido ao alto potencial de dependência, bem como às suas consequências, muitas vezes letais. Os mais usados são os opioides (fentanil e sufentanil), o propofol e os anestésicos inalatórios. Os profissionais mais jovens são os mais afetados. As consequências do uso vão desde afastamento do local de trabalho até morte. A volta à sala de cirurgia parece levar a alto risco de recaída. Programas de tratamento especializado para a classe médica são propostos nos EUA e na Europa, bem como medidas preventivas, como rigidez no controle de fármacos e identificação dos profissionais sob maior risco de abuso. No Brasil, os anestesiologistas são a segunda especialidade que mais consomem substâncias, porém o assunto é pouco estudado e há uma carência de programas especializados na área. CONCLUSÕES: O abuso de substâncias entre os anestesiologistas é um assunto que necessita maior atenção, principalmente devido às consequências graves que este consumo pode acarretar tanto para o profissional como para os pacientes.

Palavras-chave

analgésicos, opioides, anestesiologia, segurança, anestesiologistas, complicações, mortalidade

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians has a slightly higher rate of psychoactive substance use when compared to the population in general. Anesthesiology is one of the most affected medicine specialties, especially due to overwork and easier access to drugs. This paper aims to carry out a literature review on the topic. Therefore, research was conducted by searching topic-related keywords on papers from the last 30 years available on MEDLINE. CONTENT: Despite the fact that alcohol abuse is the most common among anesthesiologists, the abuse of anesthetic agents causes more concern, due to its high dependence potential and consequences, which are often fatal. The most widely used drugs are opioids (fentanyl and sufentanil), propofol and inhalational anesthetics. Young professionals are the most affected. Among the consequences of drug abuse are workplace absence and even death. The return to operating rooms seems to increase the risk of relapse. In Europe and in the USA there are specialized treatment programs for the middle class, as well as preventive measures, such as strict control of drugs and identification of professionals at high risk of abuse. In Brazil, Anesthesiology is the second medicine specialty with most drug addicts, but the topic has not been much studied and there are few specialized programs in the field. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse by anesthesiologists is an issue that needs to be discussed further, especially due to the possibility of severe consequences for professionals and patients.

Keywords

absenteeism, anesthesiology, mortality, occupational diseases, opioid related disorders, physicians

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