Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942012000300009
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Review Article

Fatores de risco para o despertar intraoperatório

Risk factor for intraoperative awareness

Rogean Rodrigues Nunes; Victor Camarão Porto; Vivianne Trevia Miranda; Nayanna Quezado de Andrade; Lara Moreira Mendes Carneiro

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O despertar intraoperatório, evento adverso na anestesia geral, pode ocorrer em cerca de 20.000 casos por ano, o que em si justifica o estudo dos fatores de risco deste evento. O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer uma revisão sobre o tema com a finalidade de diminuir a incidência do despertar intraoperatório e das sequelas psicológicas decorrentes deste incidente, que podem resultar em síndrome de estresse pós-traumático com repercussões negativas sobre o desempenho social, psíquico e funcional do paciente cirúrgico. CONTEÚ;DO: Foi realizada revisão sobre o despertar intraoperatório, avaliando suas diferentes fases durante anestesia geral, sonhos, vigília, memória explicita e implícita, assim como análise, consequências e prevenção dos principais fatores relacionados ao mesmo. CONCLUSÕES: A diminuição na incidência do despertar durante anestesia está ligada ao melhor desempenho cientifico e técnico do anestesiologista, envolvendo questões como a monitoração, a compreensão sobre os componentes da atividade anestésica, drogas hipnóticas, analgésicas, bloqueadores neuromusculares, controle de reflexos autonômicos e motores, além dos fatores de risco envolvidos neste evento.

Palavras-chave

anestesia, complicações, consciência intraoperatória, estresse pós-traumático, técnicas de medição, eletroencefalografia

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The intraoperative awareness is an adverse event in the general anesthesia, and may occur in approximately 20,000 cases per year, which justifies the study of the risk factors for this event. The objective of this study was to review this subject in order to reduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness and psychological sequelae incurring from this incident, which may result in post-traumatic stress disorder with negative repercussions on the surgical patient social, psychic and functional development. CONTENT: It was conducted a review of the intraoperative awareness assessing its different phases during general anesthesia such as dreaming, wakefulness, explicit and implicit memory, as well as the analysis, consequences and prevention of its main related factors. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of awareness incidence during anesthesia is related to the anesthesiologist improved scientific and technical performance, involving issues such as monitoring, comprehension of the anesthesia activity components, hypnotic and analgesic drugs, neuromuscular blocking agents, autonomic and motor reflex control, in addition to the risk factors involved in this event.

Keywords

anesthesia, electroencephalography, intraoperative awareness, stress disorders, post-traumatic

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