Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942012000300004
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Volume mediano efetivo de cristaloides na prevenção de hipotensão arterial em pacientes submetidas à cesariana com raquianestesia

The median effective volume of crystalloid in preventing hypotension in patients undergoing cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia

Xu ShiQin; Wu HaiBo; Zhao QingSong; Shen XiaoFeng; Guo XiRong; Wang FuZhou

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hipotensão materna associada à raquianestesia no parto cesáreo é a complicação mais frequente e problemática, com sérios riscos para a mãe e comprometimento do bem-estar neonatal. Nesse contexto, o volume efetivo de cristaloides por via intravenosa como uma estratégia de prevensão ainda não foi estimado. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e cinco parturientes com estado físico ASA I/II submetidas à cesariana seletiva foram selecionadas e 67 mulheres elegíveis foram designadas para receber uma pré-carga de cristaloides com 2 mL de bupivacaína hiperbárica a 0,5% (10 mg) mais 50 µg de morfina. O volume de cristaloides foi determinado por um método sequencial up-and-down. Os cristaloides foram infundidos a uma taxa de 100 a 150 mL.min-1 antes da anestesia espinal. O volume inicial de cristaloides foi de 5 mL.kg-1. Os dados do efeito do volume foram ajustados para o modelo sigmoidal de máxima eficácia e a mediana do volume efetivo (VE50) e seu intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95% foram calculados usando a estimativa de máxima verossimilhança e a regressão logística de Firth corrigida. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e sete parturientes completaram o estudo e foram analisadas. Vinte e oito pacientes (41,8%) desenvolveram hipotensão, com queda da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) superior a 20% do valor basal. O VE50 de cristaloides foi de 12,6 mL.kg-1 (IC 95%, 11,6 a 14,8 mL.kg-1). Com a correção de Firth, a probabilidade conjunta do volume efetivo de cristaloides a 13 mL.kg-1 foi de 50,2% (IC 95%, 30,0% a 83,1%). CONCLUSÕES: O VE50 estimado da pré-carga de cristaloides necessário para prevenir a hipotensão induzida por anestesia espinhal em parto cesáreo é de 13 mL.kg-1 (valor aproximado). Porém, a profilaxia ou terapia com vasoconstritores também deve ser preparada e administrada no momento oportuno.

Palavras-chave

anestesia, regional, raquianestesia, cirurgia, cesárea, complicações, hipotensão, hidratação

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal anesthesia-associated maternal hypotension in Cesarean delivery is the most frequent and troublesome complication, posing serious risks to mothers and compromising neonatal well-being. The effective volume of intravenous crystalloid as the preventive strategy in this context has not been estimated. METHODS: Eighty-five parturients with ASA physical status I/II undergoing elective Cesarean delivery were screened and 67 eligible women were assigned to receive pre-spinal crystalloid loading. Hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine 2 mL (10 mg) plus morphine 50 µg was given to all patients. The volume of crystalloid was determined by an up-and-down sequential method. The crystalloid was infused at a rate of 100-150 mL.min-1 prior to the spinal anesthetic injection. The initial volume of crystalloid was 5 mL.kg-1. Volume-effect data were fitted to a sigmoidal maximum efficacy model and the median effective volume (EV50) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation and logistic regression with Firth's correction. RESULTS: A total of 67 subjects completed the study and were analyzed. Twenty-eight (41.8%) patients developed hypotension with their systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreasing > 20% of baseline. The EV50 of crystalloid were 12.6 mL.kg-1 (95% CI, 11.6 to 14.8 mL.kg-1). With Firth's correction, the pooled probability of an effective preventive volume of crystalloid at 13 mL.kg-1 was 50.2% (95% CI, 30% to 83.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated EV50 of the preloaded crystalloid required to prevent spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in a Cesarean section is, approximately, 13 mL.kg-1. However, prophylactic or therapeutic vasoconstrictors should also be prepared and administered at an appropriate time.

Keywords

anesthesia, spinal, cesarean section, isotonic solutions, hypotension

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