Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942009000500003
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Avaliação pulmonar em crianças portadoras de cardiopatia congênita acianótica e hiperfluxo pulmonar através de tomografia computadorizada

Computed tomography in pulmonary evaluation of children with acyanotic congenital heart defect and pulmonary hyperflow

Solange Gimenez; Mariana Limeira Teixeira; Rodrigo Myashiro; Maria José Carvalho Carmona; José Otávio Costa Auler Jr; Luiz Marcelo Sá Malbouisson

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Disfunção respiratória é frequente em crianças com cardiopatias congênitas acianóticas com hiperfluxo pulmonar (CCAHP), porém pouco é conhecido sobre a estrutura pulmonar destes pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os volumes de gás e tecido e a distribuição da aeração pulmonar nesta população. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética institucional e obtenção do consentimento escrito pós-informado, foram obtidas tomografias computadorizadas torácicas em sete crianças com CCAHF. As imagens pulmonares direita e esquerda foram contornadas em todas as imagens e os volumes e pesos pulmonares foram computados a partir dos dados volumétricos. As comparações entre esquerda e direita foram analisadas usando teste t de Student pareado e as correlações através de regressão exponencial. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana foi 20 meses e o peso foi de 9,9 kg. Volume pulmonar total (VPT) foi de 66,7 ± 23,1 mL.kg-1, o de tecido 33,5 ± 15,7 mL.kg-1 e o de gás 33,1 ± 8,3 mL.kg-1. O pulmão direito representou 57,9% e o pulmão esquerdo 42,1% do VPT (p < 0,001). O volume pulmonar de gás à direita foi 60,5% do volume de gás total (p< 0,001) e a quantidade de parênquima pulmonar normalmente aerado foi significativamente menor à esquerda (27,6 ± 6,8 vs . 18,1 ± 8% p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: As crianças portadoras de CCAHP apresentaram aumento no volume de tecido pulmonar maior que o esperado, possivelmente por edema intersticial. A aeração pulmonar está reduzida no pulmão esquerdo pela compressão imposta pelo coração ao pulmão subjacente.

Palavras-chave

COMPLICAÇÕES, DOENÇAS, Congênita, EXAMES COMPLEMENTARES

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Respiratory dysfunction is common in children with acyanotic congenital heart defects (ACHD) with pulmonary hyperflow; however, little is known about the pulmonary structure of those patients. The objective of this study was to quantify the volumes of air and tissue, as well as the distribution of pulmonary aeration in this population. METHODS: After approval by the Ethics Committee of the institution and signing of an informed consent, seven children with ACHD with pulmonary hyperflow underwent computed tomographies of the chest. All images included the left and right pulmonary contour, and pulmonary volumes and weight were calculated using volumetric data. Paired Student t test was used to compare left and right, and exponential regression was used for correlations. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 20 months and weight of 9.9 kg. Total pulmonary volume (TPV) was 66.7 ± 23.1 mL.kg-1, tissue volume of 33.5 ± 15.7 mL.kg-1, and air volume of 33.1 ± 8.3 mL.kg-1. The right lung represented 57.9% of TPV and the left, 42.1% (p < 0.001). The pulmonary volume of air on the right was 60.5% of the total air volume (p < 0.001), and the volume of pulmonary parenchyma normally aerated was significantly lower on the left (27.6 ± 6.8 vs . 18.1 ± 8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The volume of lung tissue was greater than expected in children with ACHD with pulmonary hyperflow, possibly due to interstitial edema. Pulmonary aeration is reduced in the left lung due to the compression of the lung by the heart.

Keywords

COMPLEMENTARY EXAMS, COMPLICATIONS, DISEASES, Congenital

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