Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942008000600001
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Estudo comparativo entre anestesia peridural torácica e anestesia geral em mastectomia oncológica

Comparative study between thoracic epidural block and general anesthesia for oncologic mastectomy

Sérgio D. Belzarena

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia peridural torácica é utilizada com freqüência para procedimentos estéticos da mama e há poucos relatos de seu emprego para mastectomias com exploração axilar. O presente estudo comparou a técnica com anestesia geral em operações oncológicas da mama. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No grupo peridural (n = 20) foi realizada peridural torácica com bupivacaína e fentanil associada à sedação com midazolam. O outro grupo (n = 20) recebeu anestesia geral convencional com propofol, atracúrio e fentanil e manutenção com O2 e isoflurano. Registraram-se no intra-operatório duração da operação, necessidade de complementação da anestesia ou da sedação e variáveis hemodinâmicas. No pós-operatório, foram registrados o tempo para alta da sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e hospitalar, a intensidade da dor e o consumo de analgésicos, os efeitos adversos e a satisfação com a técnica anestésica. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes e não houve diferença na duração da operação. Foi necessário complementar a sedação em 100% das pacientes que receberam anestesia peridural e em 15% foi complementada a analgesia com infiltração de anestésico local na axila. Houve maior incidência de hipertensão arterial no grupo da anestesia geral e de hipotensão entre as que receberam peridural. Ocorreu prurido em 55% das pacientes com anestesia peridural. Náusea (30%) e vômito (45%) foram mais freqüentes entre as que receberam anestesia geral. A analgesia pós-operatória teve melhor qualidade e o consumo de analgésicos foi menor no grupo da anestesia peridural. O período de internação também foi menor. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica peridural tem algumas vantagens com relação à anestesia geral e pode ser considerada uma opção para anestesia em mastectomias oncológicas com esvaziamento axilar.

Palavras-chave

ANESTESIA, ANESTESIA, CIRURGIA, CIRURGIA

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thoracic epidural block is frequently used for esthetic breast surgeries but reports of its use in mastectomies with axillary exploration are very rare. The present study compared this technique with general anesthesia in oncologic surgeries of the breasts.
METHODS: Forty patients were divided in two groups. The epidural group (n = 20) underwent epidural thoracic block with bupivacaine and fentanyl associated with sedation with midazolam. The other group (n = 20) underwent conventional general anesthesia with propofol, atracurium, and fentanyl, and maintenance with O2 and isoflurane. Duration of the surgery, the need for intraoperative complementation of anesthesia or sedation, and intraoperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded. In the postoperative period, length of time until discharge from the recovery room and from the hospital, severity of pain, analgesic consumption, adverse effects, and satisfaction with the anesthetic techniques were recorded.
RESULTS: Both groups were similar and differences in the duration of the surgery were not observed. Complementary sedation was necessary in 100% of the patients who underwent epidural block and complementary sedation with infiltration of local anesthetic in the axilla in 15% of the patients in this group. The rate of hypertension was more frequent in the group of patients who underwent general anesthesia, while hypotension was more frequent in the epidural group. Pruritus was observed in 55% of the patients in the epidural group. Nausea (30%) and vomiting (45%) were more frequent in the general anesthesia group. The quality of postoperative analgesia was better in the epidural group, which also presented lower consumption of analgesics; the length hospitalization in this group was also lower.
CONCLUSIONS: Epidural block has some advantages when compared with general anesthesia and can be considered an anesthesia option in oncologic mastectomies with axillary lymph node dissection.

Keywords

ANESTHESIA: Regional, epidural; SURGERY: Oncologic, mastectomy

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