Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942008000300010
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Miscellaneous

Uso de canabinóides na dor crônica e em cuidados paliativos

Cannabinoids in chronic pain and palliative care

Laura Bonfá; Ronaldo Contreiras de Oliveira Vinagre; Núbia Verçosa de Figueiredo

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Muitos estudos têm chamado atenção para a Cannabis sativa (Cs), pelo seu potencial analgésico e pela sua capacidade de aliviar sintomas relacionados com doenças do sistema nervoso central. Porém, a maconha, como é popularmente conhecida, por ser a mais popular das drogas ilegais em todo o mundo, gera preconceito tanto entre leigos como entre profissionais que atuam na área da saúde. Objetivou-se pesquisar o nível de conhecimento atual e suas perspectivas de utilização para compreender melhor suas ações e seus efeitos, na pesquisa experimental e na prática médica, em pacientes com doenças degenerativas neurológicas ou naqueles que não tenham possibilidades de cura, atendidos em programas de cuidados paliativos. CONTEÚDO: Seu uso terapêutico não é recente. O presente estudo fornece uma revisão do histórico e farmacologia da Cs, o desenvolvimento de seu uso terapêutico por meio dos canabinóides sintéticos, o conhecimento científico atual, suas conseqüências orgânicas e psíquicas, demonstrando suas opções de uso clínico e perspectivas futuras. CONCLUSÕES: O delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (delta9-THC) puro e seus análogos apresentam aplicabilidade clínica, demonstrando benefícios. O desenvolvimento das substâncias sintéticas puras, buscando a atenuação de efeitos psicoativos indesejáveis aponta para perspectivas favoráveis a sua utilização no futuro. Estudos mais detalhados deverão ser realizados. Debates amplos serão necessários para criar normas de formulação e disponibilização com a finalidade médica, por se tratar de uma substância que gera preconceito pela sua comercialização e utilização ilegal e a seu uso ser atribuído misticismo.

Palavras-chave

DOR, Crônica, DROGAS, DROGAS

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have focused on Cannabis sativa (Cs) due to its analgesic potential and its ability to alleviate symptoms of disorders of the central nervous system. However, since marijuana, one of its popular names, is the most common illicit drug throughout the world, it breeds prejudice both among lay people and health care professionals. The objective of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge about this drug and the perspectives for its use, to better understand its actions and effects, both in experimental studies and clinical use, in patients with degenerative neurological disorders or in those who do not have the possibility of cure and are being followed by palliative care programs. CONTENTS: The therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa is not recent. The present study presents the historical background and pharmacology of Cs, the development of its therapeutic use through synthetic cannabinoids, the current scientific knowledge, and its organic and psychological consequences, demonstrating the options for its clinical use and future perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: Pure delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and its analogues have clinical applicability, being beneficial in selected individuals. The development of pure synthetic substances, in an attempt to attenuate undesirable psychoactive effects, indicates that perspectives for its use in the future are favorable. More detailed studies should be undertaken. Ample debates will be necessary to create standards for its formulation and clinical availability, since it is a substance that generates prejudice, due to its illegal commercialization and use, and also because its use has been attributed to mysticism.

Keywords

DRUGS, DRUGS, PAIN, Chronic

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