Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942002000400013
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Review Article

Anestesia na Pré-Eclâmpsia

Anesthesia in Pre-Eclampsia

Eliana Marisa Ganem; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Embora a pré-eclâmpsia acometa pequena porcentagem da população obstétrica, ela é responsável por considerável morbidade e mortalidade maternas. Assim sendo, o controle anestésico adequado deste grupo de pacientes ainda hoje é um desafio para os anestesiologistas. Este artigo tem a finalidade de apresentar a fisiopatologia, o tratamento farmacológico e as opções anestésicas para o parto normal ou cirúrgico, em pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia. CONTEÚDO: Estão descritos a classificação e terminologia da hipertensão arterial induzida pela gestação, a fisiopatologia, as alterações nos diversos órgãos e sistemas, os princípios gerais no controle das pacientes e as opções anestésicas para o parto normal e cirúrgico. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, pelo anestesiologista, da fisiopatologia, das formas de tratamento e das características farmacológicas das drogas utilizadas para o controle da hipertensão arterial e a profilaxia das convulsões, assim como sua interação com as drogas e técnicas anestésicas, possibilita a redução das complicações peri-operatórias e da mortalidade materna e fetal.

Palavras-chave

ANESTESIA, ANESTESIA

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although affecting a small obstetric population, pre-eclampsia is responsible for considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the adequate anesthetic control of this group is yet a challenge for anesthesiologists. This paper aimed at presenting pathophysiology, pharmacological treatment and anesthetic options to normal or surgical delivery in pre-eclampsia patients. CONTENTS: Classification and terminology of pregnancy-induced arterial hypertension, its pathophysiology, changes in different systems and organs, general principles for patients control and anesthetic options for normal or surgical delivery are described. CONCLUSIONS: The anesthesiologist’s knowledge of the pathophysiology, treatment options, and pharmacological characteristics of drugs used to control arterial hypertension and prevent seizures, as well as their interactions with anesthetic drugs and techniques, may decrease perioperative complications and maternal and fetal mortality.

Keywords

ANESTHESIA, ANESTHESIA

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