Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1590/S0034-70942002000400004
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Efeitos da associação da clonidina à ropivacaína na anestesia peridural

Clinical evaluation of clonidine associated to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia

Túlio César Azevedo Alves; José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos e o potencial sinergismo entre a clonidina, um agonista alfa2-adrenérgico, e a ropivacaína ainda não foram estudados em pacientes sob anestesia peridural. O objetivo da pesquisa foi estudar os efeitos da associação da clonidina com a ropivacaína, nas características do bloqueio peridural. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo duplamente encoberto, 60 pacientes distribuídos em dois grupos de 30 pacientes. No grupo G controle, foi usada apenas a ropivacaína a 0,75% (150 mg) na anestesia peridural; no grupo G clonidina, foram utilizadas clonidina (300 µg) e ropivacaína a 0,75% (150 mg) na anestesia peridural. Foram analisados os seguintes atributos: bloqueio analgésico completo (tempo de latência), instalação do bloqueio motor, duração dos bloqueios analgésico e motor, nível máximo do bloqueio analgésico, nível de consciência, necessidade de analgesia e sedação complementar no per-operatório, ocorrência de hipotensão arterial no per e pós-operatórios, intensidade da dor pós-operatória, duração da analgesia e efeitos colaterais. RESULTADOS: A clonidina (300 µg), por via peridural, não influenciou a latência (p > 0,05); porém prolongou a duração dos bloqueios analgésico e motor (p < 0,0001) e a analgesia pós-operatória (p < 0,001). A proporção de hipotensão arterial foi pequena e semelhante entre os grupos, mas houve maior incidência de bradicardia (p < 0,02) e sedação (p < 0,001) no grupo que utilizou a clonidina. A incidência de tremores foi menor no grupo da clonidina (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições deste estudo e nas doses empregadas, pode-se concluir que há sinergismo evidente entre a clonidina e a ropivacaína na anestesia peridural. A clonidina aumenta a duração dos bloqueios analgésico e motor da anestesia peridural com a ropivacaína e prolonga a analgesia pós-operatória. A clonidina apresenta como vantagens adicionais, o aumento da sedação dos pacientes e a redução na incidência de tremores, mas aumenta a ocorrência de bradicardia.

Palavras-chave

ANALGÉSICOS, ANESTÉSICOS, ANESTÉSICOS, TÉCNICAS ANESTÉSICAS, TÉCNICAS ANESTÉSICAS

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical effects and the potential synergism between clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, and ropivacaine have not been studied in patients undergoing epidural anesthesia. This research aimed at clinically evaluating clonidine associated to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this double-blind study 60 patients of both genders who were distributed in two groups: G control = epidural 0.75% ropivacaine (150 mg); G clonidine = epidural 0.75% ropivacaine (150 mg) plus clonidine (300 µg). The following parameters were studied: total analgesic block (onset time), motor block onset, analgesic and motor block duration, upper level of analgesia, consciousness level, need for intraoperative analgesia and supplemental sedation, peri and postoperative arterial hypotension, intensity of postoperative pain, analgesia duration, and side-effects. RESULTS: Epidural clonidine (300 µg) had not affected onset (p > 0.05) but has prolonged sensory and motor block duration (p < 0.0001) and postoperative analgesia (p > 0.001). Arterial hypotension rate was the same for both groups, but the incidence of bradycardia and sedation was higher in the clonidine group (p < 0.02 and p < 0.001 respectively). Shivering was more common in the control group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the conditions of our study, there has been a clear synergism between epidural clonidine and ropivacaine. Clonidine increases sensory and motor block duration during epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine and prolongs postoperative analgesia. Additional advantages of clonidine are increased sedation and decreased shivering, but its drawback is to increase the incidence of bradycardia.

Keywords

ANALGESICS, ANESTHETICS, ANESTHETICS, ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES, ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES

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