Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Original investigation

Association of antimicrobial use and incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill trauma patients with pulmonary contusion: an observational study

Estevão Bassi, Camila Trevizani Merighi, Carlos Issamu Tomizuka, Thais Guimarães, Fernando da Costa Ferreira Novo, Sergio Henrique Bastos Damous, Edivaldo Massazo Utiyama, Luiz Marcelo Sá Malbouisson

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Pneumonia occurs in about 20% of trauma patients with pulmonary contusions. This study aims to evaluate the association between empirical antibiotic therapy and nosocomial pneumonia in this population.


Retrospective cohort of adult patients admitted to a trauma-surgical ICU. The Antibiotic Therapy Group (ATG) was defined by intravenous antibiotic use for more than 48 h starting on hospital admission, while the Conservative Group (CG) was determined by antibiotic use no longer than 48 h. Primary outcome was microbiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia within 14 days after hospital admission. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between group allocation and primary outcome. Exploratory analyses evaluating the association between resistant strains in pneumonia and antibiotic use were performed.


The study included 177 patients with chest trauma and pulmonary contusion on CT scan. ATG were more severely ill than CG, as shown by higher Injury Severity Score, SAPS3, SOFA score, higher rates, and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. In the multivariate analysis, ATG was associated with a lower incidence of primary outcome (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09–0.64; p < 0.01). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analysis with another set of variables. However, each day of antibiotic use was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia by resistant bacteria (OR = 1.18 per day, 95% CI 1.05–1.36; p < 0.01).


Empiric antibiotic therapy was independently associated with lower incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients with pulmonary contusion. However, each day of antibiotic use was associated with increased resistant strains in infected patients.


Thoracic injuries; Lung injury; Healthcare-associated pneumonia; Antibacterial agents
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Braz J Anesthesiol

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