Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology

Is the combination of oral midazolam and ketamine as preanesthetic medication a safe and effective practice?

Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo; Luciana Cavalcanti Lima; Débora de Oliveira Cumino; Paulo do Nascimento Júnior; Guilherme Antonio Moreira de Barros

Downloads: 2
Views: 538


1. Moro ET, Modolo NSP. Ansiedade, a crian  ca e os pais. Rev Bras ¸ Anestesiol. 2004;54:728−38.

2. Caumo W, Broenstrub JC, Fialho L, Petry SMG, Brathwait O, Bandeira D, et al. Risk factors for postoperative anxiety in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000;44:782−9.

3. Papay JP, Spielberger CD. Assessment of anxiety and achievement in kindergarten and first-and second-grade children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1986;14:279−86.

4. Cumino DO, Vieira JE, Lima LC, Stievano LP, Silva RAP, Mathias LAST. Smartphone-based behavioural intervention alleviates children’s anxiety during anaesthesia induction. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2017;34:169−75.

5. Berghmans JM, Poley M, Weber F, et al. Does the Child Behavior Checklist predict levels of preoperative anxiety at anesthetic induction and postoperative emergence delirium? A prospective cohort study. Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81:145−56.

6. Vessey JA, Bogetz MS, Dunleavy MF, Caserza CL, Chesterman B. Memories of Being Anesthetized as a Child. Anesthesiology. 1994;81:A1385. Supplement. Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology 2023;73(4): 370−372

7. Matsuda H, Takenaka J, Kawabata M, et al. Serum concentration of oral midazolam as pediatric preanesthetic medication and factors related to the sedation level. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2022;66:818−22.

8. Kogan A, Katz J, Efrat R, Eidelman LA. Premedication with midazolam in young children: a comparison of four routes of administration. Pediatr Anesth. 2002;12:685−9.

9. Funk W, Jakob W, Riedl T, Taeger K. Oral preanaesthetic medication for children: double-blind randomized study of a combination of midazolam and ketamine vs midazolam or ketamine alone. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84:335−40.

10. Reed MD, Rodarte A, Blumer JL, et al. The Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Midazolam and Its Primary Metabolite in Pediatric Patients after Oral and Intravenous Administration. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:1359−69.

11. Oliveira Filho GR de, Castilhos CM, Kriegl JP, Bianchi GN. Oral preanesthetic medication in children − comparison between midazolam alone and in combination with ketamine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2023;73:477−90.

12. Fanta S, Kinnunen M, Backman JT, Kalso E. Population pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine and norketamine in healthy volunteers after intravenous and oral dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;71:441−7.

13. Lyseng-Williamson KA. Midazolam oral solution (Ozalin): a profile of its use for procedural sedation or premedication before anaesthesia in children. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2019;35:255−62.

14. Penna H de M, Paiva APM, Romano AJM, Alves RL, Junior P do Nascimento, Modolo NSP. Comparison between oral midazolam  versus oral ketamine plus midazolam as preanesthetic medication in autism spectrum disorder: double-blind randomized clinical trial. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2023;73:283−90.

15. Ciccozzi A, Pizzi B, Vittori A, Piroli A, Marrocco G, Della Vecchia F, et al. The Perioperative Anesthetic Management of the Pediatric Patient with Special Needs: An Overview of Literature. Children. 2022;9:1438.

64931abba953951c6c0991c8 rba Articles
Links & Downloads

Braz J Anesthesiol

Share this page
Page Sections