Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Original Investigation

Therapeutic ultrasound ameliorates hyperalgesia and edema on CFA-induced persistent inflammatory response in mice

O ultrassom terapêutico melhora a hiperalgesia e o edema na resposta inflamatória persistente induzida por CFA em camundongos

Mariana Rodrigues, Rafael I. Barbosa, Lais M.S. Neves, Heloyse U. Kuriki, Elaine C.D. Gonçalves, Adair R.S. Santos, Rafael C. Dutra, Alexandre M. Marcolino

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The present study investigated the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound (USP and USC) in edema and hyperalgesia after chronic inflammatory process induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant-CFA and analyzing the relationship of the application frequency of ultrasound, in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

Forty-five animals were divided into 9 groups; all animals from groups 2 to 9 were subjected to a persistent inflammation model induced by CFA in mice. We report the effects and the underlying action mechanisms of USP and USC in the animals which were irradiated two, three or five times a week on the left hind paw. The analyses performed in this study were: evaluation of hind paw edema through the plethysmometer, evaluation of thermal hyperalgesia through withdrawal test using a water container at 44.5°C (± 0.5°C), and the plantar region of the left paw which was removed for analysis of cytokines.

Our results showed that USP and USC consistently reduced paw edema, and pulsed ultrasound showed a higher significant effect than the continuous mode. Moreover, groups with irradiation frequency of five times a week presented an inhibition of the edema, and groups with frequency of three or two times a week reduced mainly hyperalgesia, in comparison with the control group. The beneficial effects of the US then seem to be associated with upregulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-10 and IL-6, respectively.

This study provided evidence that ultrasound constitutes an important non-pharmacological intervention for the management of inflammatory and pain states.


Inflammatory mediators;  Edema;  Ultrasonic therapy;  Pain management;  Rehabilitation;  Electrophysical agents  



O presente estudo investigou os efeitos do ultrassom pulsado e contínuo (USP e USC) no edema e hiperalgesia após processo inflamatório crônico induzido pelo Adjuvante Completo de Freund-CFA e analisando a relação da frequência de aplicação do ultrassom, na produção de pró e anti -citocina inflamatória.


Quarenta e cinco animais foram divididos em 9 grupos; todos os animais dos grupos 2 a 9 foram submetidos a um modelo de inflamação persistente induzido por CFA em camundongos. Relatamos os efeitos e os mecanismos de ação subjacentes da USP e USC nos animais que foram irradiados duas, três ou cinco vezes por semana na pata traseira esquerda. As análises realizadas neste estudo foram: avaliação do edema da pata traseira através do pletismômetro, avaliação da hiperalgesia térmica através do teste de retirada com recipiente com água a 44,5°C (± 0,5°C), e da região plantar da pata esquerda que foi retirada. para análise de citocinas.


Nossos resultados mostraram que a USP e a USC reduziram consistentemente o edema da pata, e a ultrassonografia pulsada mostrou um efeito mais significativo do que o modo contínuo. Além disso, os grupos com frequência de irradiação de cinco vezes por semana apresentaram inibição do edema, e os grupos com frequência de três ou duas vezes por semana reduziram principalmente a hiperalgesia, em comparação ao grupo controle. Os efeitos benéficos dos EUA parecem então estar associados à regulação positiva de mediadores anti e pró-inflamatórios, como IL-10 e IL-6, respectivamente.


Este estudo forneceu evidências de que a ultrassonografia constitui uma importante intervenção não farmacológica para o manejo de estados inflamatórios e dolorosos.


Mediadores inflamatórios; Edema; Terapia ultrassônica; Manejo da dor; Reabilitação; Agentes eletrofísicos


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