Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Clinical Research

Hemodynamic course during ablation and selective hepatic artery embolization for metastatic liver carcinoid: a retrospective observational study

Nathan J. Vinzant, Mariana L. Laporta, Juraj Sprung, Thomas D. Atwell, Christopher J. Reisenauer, Tasha L. Welch, Phillip J. Schulte, Toby N. Weingarten

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Manipulation of carcinoid tumors during ablation or selective hepatic artery embolization (transarterial embolization, TAE) can release vasoactive mediators inducing hemodynamic instability. The main aim of our study was to review hemodynamics and complications related to minimally invasive treatments of liver carcinoids with TAE or ablation.

Electronic medical records of all patients with metastatic liver carcinoid undergoing ablation or TAE from 2003to 2019 were abstracted. Noted were severe hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] ≤ 55 mmHg), severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mmHg), and perioperative complications. Associations of procedure type and pre-procedure octreotide use with intraprocedural hemodynamics were assessed using linear regression. A robust covariance approach using generalized estimating equation method was used to account for multiple observations.

A total of 161 patients underwent 98 ablations and 207 TAEs. Severe hypertension was observed in 24 (24.5%) vs.15 (7.3%), severe hypotension in 56 (57.1%) vs. 6 (2.9%), and cutaneous flushing observed in 2 (2.0%) vs. 48 (23.2%) ablations and TAEs, respectively. After adjusting for preprocedural MAP, ablation was associated with lower intraprocedural MAP compared to TAE (estimate -27 mmHg, 95%CI -30 to -24 mmHg, p <  0.001). Intraprocedural declines in MAP were not affected by preprocedural use of octreotide (p =  0.7 for TAE and p =  0.4 for ablation).

Ablation of liver carcinoids was associated with substantial hemodynamic instability, especially hypotension. In contrast, a higher number of TAE patients had cutaneous flushing. Preprocedural use of octreotide was not associated with attenuation of intraprocedural hypotension.


Ablation,  Carcinoid tumor,  Embolization,  Hypertension,  Hypotension,  Octreotide,  Serotonin


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