Validation of the Brazilian version of the child pain catastrophizing scale and its relationship with a marker of central sensitization
Larissa Schneider, Stela Maris de Jezus Castro, Eliza Saggin Mallman, Cibelle de Abreu Evaldt, Andressa Souza, Josy da Silva Rodrigues, Clarissa Mendanha, Wolnei Caumo, Luciana Cadore Stefani
The Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child version (PCS-C) allows to identify children who are prone to catastrophic thinking. We aimed to adapt the Brazilian version of PCS-C (BPCS-C) to examine scale psychometric properties and factorial structure in children with and without chronic pain. Also, we assessed its correlation with salivary levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
The Brazilian version of PCS-C was modified to adjust it for 7–12 years old children. To assess psychometric properties, 100 children (44 with chronic pain from a tertiary hospital and 56 healthy children from a public school) answered the BPCS-C, the visual analogue pain scale, and questions about pain interference in daily activities. We also collected a salivary sample to measure BDNF.
We observed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s value = 0.81). Parallel analysis retained 2-factors. Conﬁrmatory factor analysis of our 2-factor model revealed consistent goodness-of-fit (IFI = 0.946) when compared to other models. There was no correlation between visual analogue pain scale and the total BPCS-C score; however, there was an association between pain catastrophizing and difficulty in doing physical activities in school (p = 0.01). BPCS-C total scores were not different between groups. We found a marginal association with BPCS-C (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and salivary BDNF levels.
BPCS-C is a valid instrument with consistent psychometric properties. The revised 2-dimension proposed can be used for this population. Children catastrophism is well correlated with physical limitation, but the absence of BPCS-C score differences between groups highlights the necessity of a better understanding about catastrophic thinking in children.