Tranexamic acid in total shoulder arthroplasty under regional anesthesia: a randomized, single blinded, controlled trial
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Tranexamic Acid (TXA) can significantly reduce perioperative blood loss in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA) performed under regional anesthesia.
We performed a randomized, single blinded, controlled study. Forty-five patients were submitted to TSA under regional anesthesia to treat cuff tear arthropathy, proximal humeral fractures, chronic instability, primary osteoarthrosis, and failures of previous prosthesis. Patients were randomized to either group TXA therapy (TXA), with 1 g Intravenous (IV), or no Intervention (NTXA). Postoperative total drain output, hemoglobin variation, total blood loss, hemoglobin loss, and need for transfusion were measured. Pain-related variables were also assessed: postoperative pain assessment by visual analog scale, inpatient pain breakthrough, quality of recovery, length of stay, and coagulation function testing.
Participants presented a mean age of 76-years, 15.6% were male, 82.2% were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1 or 2. There were no differences between groups concerning transfusions, operative time, Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) length of stay and in-hospital stay, and QoR-15 or postoperative pain. Bleeding measured by drain output at 2, 24 and 48 hours was significantly less in the TXA group at each timepoint. There was a difference in Hb variation – TXA: median (IQR) -1.4 (1.3) g.dL-1 vs. NTXA: -2.2 (1.3) g.dL-1; median difference: 0.80 (0.00–1.20); p = 0.047. aPTT was lower in TXA administered patients – TXA: median (IQR) 29.6 (14.0)s vs. NTXA: 33 (5.8)s; difference in medians: -4.00 (-6.50–-1.00); p = 0.012.
TXA use significantly decreased blood loss measured by drain output and Hb drop in TSA under regional anesthesia.