Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Clinical Research

Effects of lidocaine and esmolol on hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation: a randomized clinical trial

Fabrício Tavares Mendonça, Samuel Laurindo da Silva, Tiago Maurmann Nilton, Igor Reis Rodrigues Alves

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Introduction and objectives
Although lidocaine is widely used to prevent cardiovascular changes resulting from laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation, it is still unclear whether there are more efficacious drugs. This study aimed to compare the beta-blocker esmolol with lidocaine regarding the effects on hemodynamic response after orotracheal intubation.

The study has a prospective, randomized, double-blind, superiority design, and assessed 69 participants between 18 and 70 years of age, ASA I-II, scheduled for elective or emergency surgery under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1.5 esmolol bolus followed by 0.1 esmolol infusion (n = 34) or 1.5 lidocaine bolus followed by 1.5 lidocaine infusion (n = 35). We recorded changes in heart rate, arterial blood pressure and incidence of adverse events.

Post-intubation tachycardia episodes were significantly less frequent in the esmolol group (5.9% vs. 34.3%; Relative Risk (RR) 0.17; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.04–0.71; Number Needed to Treat (NNT) 3.5; p = 0.015. After orotracheal intubation, mean heart rate was significantly lower in the esmolol group (74.5 vs. 84.5, p = 0.006). Similar results were observed in the subsequent 3 and 6 minutes (75.9 vs. 83.9, p = 0.023 and 74.6 vs. 83.0, p = 0.013, respectively).

Esmolol was a safe and more effective intervention to reduce incidence of tachycardia and control heart rate immediately after tracheal intubation when compared to lidocaine.


Esmolol;  Orotracheal intubation;  Laryngoscopy;  Lidocaine;  Tachycardia


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