Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2020.05.003
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Case Report

Pituitary tumor resection in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. A case report and suggested airway management guidelines

Assistência perioperatória de paciente com infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) submetido a ressecção de tumor de hipófise urgente. Relato de caso e diretrizes para manejo de via aérea

Christiano dos Santos e Santos, Luiz M da Costa Lima Filho, Cristiane A Tuma Santos, James S Neill, Henrique F Vale, Lakshmi N Kurnutala

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Abstract

The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, had its headquarters in China. It causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from entirely asymptomatic through severe acute respiratory failure and death. Presuming a significant quantity of ventilator-dependent patients, several institutions strategically delayed elective surgeries. Particularly procedures performed involving the nasal mucosa, such as a transsphenoidal approach of the pituitary gland, considering the tremendous level of viral shedding. Nevertheless, critical cases demand expeditious resolution. Those situations are severe pituitary apoplexy, declining consciousness level, or risk of acute visual loss. This case presents a successful urgent perioperative management of a 47 year-old male COVID-19 positive patient who presented to the Emergency Department with a left frontal headache that culminated with diplopia, left eye ptosis, and left visual acuity loss after 5 days. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was uneventfully performed, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day four. It additionally describes in detail the University of Mississippi Medical Center airway management algorithm for patients infected with the novel coronavirus who need emergent surgical attention.

Keywords

Pituitary tumor,  Airway management,  SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)

Resumo

A pandemia de 2020 causada pelo novo coronavírus, COVID-19, teve seu epicentro na China. Causa Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave pelo Coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) e apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas, que vão desde nenhum sintoma a insuficiência respiratória aguda grave e óbito. Com a expectativa de um número significativo de pacientes dependentes de ventilador, várias instituições estrategicamente adiaram cirurgias eletivas. Esse é o caso principalmente de procedimentos envolvendo a mucosa nasal, como a via transesfenoidal para a hipófise, devido ao nível imenso de disseminação de material viral. Não obstante, casos críticos requerem resolução acelerada. Essas situações são grave apoplexia hipofisária, diminuição do nível de consciência ou risco de perda visual aguda. O presente caso relata o manejo perioperatório bem sucedido de urgência de paciente do sexo masculino de 47 anos de idade com COVID-19 que chegou ao Pronto Socorro com cefaléia frontal à esquerda que culminou com diplopia, ptose do olho esquerdo e perda de acuidade visual à esquerda após 5 dias. A hipofisectomia transesfenoidal ocorreu sem intercorrências e o paciente recebeu alta do hospital no quarto dia do pós-operatório. Adicionalmente, descrevemos em detalhe o algoritmo de manejo de via aérea da University of Mississippi Medical Center para pacientes infectados pelo novo coronavírus e que necessitam de atenção cirúrgica de emergência.

Palavras-chave

Tumor pituitário,  Anestesia,  Infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

References

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