Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2020.04.018
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Narrative Review

SBA 2020: Regional anesthesia guideline for using anticoagulants update

SBA 2020: Atualização na diretriz da anestesia regional em uso de anticoagulantes

Neuber Martins Fonseca, João Paulo Jordão Pontes, Marcelo Vaz Perez, Rodrigo Rodrigues Alves, Gabriel Gondim Fonseca

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Abstract

The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guide line, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have pre sented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narra tive review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrom botic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade. 

Keywords

Regional anesthesia; Anesthesia, conduction; Conduction anesthesia; Antithrombotic; Thromboembolism

Resumo

Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioper- atório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprova dos pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações confli tantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa, e foram feitas novas recomendações, pro jetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decor rentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional. 

Palavras-chave

Anestesia regional; Anestesia, condução; Anestesia de condução; Antitrombóticos; Tromboembolismo

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