Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2019.10.009
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Review Article

Peripheral nerve block and rebound pain: literature review

Bloqueio de nervos periféricos e dor rebote: revisão de literatura

Layana Vieira Nobre, Graziella Prianti Cunha, Paulo César Castello Branco de Sousa, Alexandre Takeda, Leonardo Henrique Cunha Ferraro

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Abstract

Background and objectives
To investigate, describe, and assess the phenomenon of “rebound pain” as a clinically relevant problem in anesthetic practice.

Content
The phenomenon of “rebound pain” has been demonstrated and described as a very severe pain, which occurs after a peripheral nerve block resolution with the recovery of sensitivity. The incidence of rebound pain is unknown. Usually, it occurs between 12 and 24 hours after surgery and, adversely affecting sleep quality. It is not yet possible to establish a mechanism as a definitive cause or trigger factor of rebound pain. Studies suggest that rebound pain is a side effect of peripheral nerve blocks, despite their effectiveness in pain control. Currently, the extent and clinical significance of rebound pain cannot be well determined due to the lack of large prospective studies.

Conclusion
Rebound pain assessment should always be considered in clinical practice, as it is not a rare side effect of peripheral nerve blocks. There are still many challenging questions to be answered about rebound pain, so large prospective studies are needed to address the issue. For prevention, the use of peripheral nerve block techniques that avoid nerve damage and adequate perioperative analgesia associated with patient education on the early administration of analgesics, even during the period of analgesia provided by peripheral nerve block, is recommended. A better understanding of the “rebound pain” phenomenon, its pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and long-term consequences may help in developing more effective preventive strategies.

Resumo

Keywords

Nerve block;  Peripheral nerves;  Rebound effect;  Postoperative pain

Resumo

Justificativa e objetivos
Investigar, descrever e avaliar o fenômeno da “dor rebote” como um problema clinicamente relevante na prática anestésica.

Conteúdo
O fenômeno da “dor rebote” foi demonstrado e descrito como uma dor muito intensa que ocorre após a resolução do bloqueio de nervo periférico com o retorno da sensibilidade. A incidência de dor rebote é desconhecida. Normalmente ela ocorre entre 12 a 24 horas após a cirurgia e afeta negativamente a qualidade do sono. Ainda não é possível estabelecer um mecanismo como causa definitiva ou fator desencadeante da dor rebote. Estudos sugerem que a dor rebote seja um efeito colateral dos bloqueios de nervos periféricos, apesar destes terem eficácia no controle álgico. Atualmente, a extensão e a significância clínica da dor rebote não podem ser bem determinadas, devido à falta de grandes estudos prospectivos.

Conclusão
A avaliação da dor rebote deve ser sempre considerada na prática clínica, pois não é um efeito colateral raro dos bloqueios de nervo periféricos. Ainda existem muitas questões desafiadoras a serem respondidas sobre a dor rebote, portanto fazem-se necessários amplos estudos prospectivos sobre a temática. Para a sua prevenção recomenda-se o uso de técnicas de bloqueio de nervo periférico que evitem a lesão do nervo e uma adequada analgesia perioperatória associada à orientação do paciente sobre a administração precoce de analgésicos mesmo na vigência da analgesia proporcionada pelo bloqueio de nervo periférico. A melhor compreensão do fenômeno “dor rebote”, sua fisiopatologia, seus fatores de risco associados e suas consequências em longo prazo poderá ajudar na elaboração de estratégias preventivas mais eficazes.

Palavras-chave

Bloqueio nervoso;  Nervos periféricos;  Efeito rebote;  Dor pós-operatória

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