Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Anesthesia for muscle biopsy to test susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

Anestesia durante biópsia muscular para teste de suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna

Helga Cristina Almeida da Silva, Elton Shinji Onari, Isac de Castro, Marcelo Vaz Perez, Alexandre Hortensi, José Luiz Gomes do Amaral

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Introduction: Malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant pharmacogenetic disorder, characterized by hypermetabolic crisis triggered by halogenated anesthetics and/or succinylcholine. The standard method for diagnosing malignant hyperthermia susceptibility is the in vitro muscle contracture test in response to halothane-caffeine, which requires muscle biopsy under anesthesia. We describe a series of anesthetic procedures without triggering agents in malignant hyperthermia, comparing peripheral nerve block and subarachnoid anesthesia. Method: We assessed the anesthetic record charts of 69 patients suspected of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility who underwent muscle biopsy forin vitro muscle contracture in the period of 7 years. Demographic data, indication for malignant hyperthermia investigation, in vitro muscle contracture test results, and surgery/anesthesia/recovery data were analyzed. Results: Sample with 34 ± 13.7 years, 60.9% women, 65.2% of in vitro muscle contracture test positive. Techniques used: peripheral nerve blocks ---- lateral femoral and femoral cutaneous, latency 65 ± 41 min ---- (47.8%); subarachnoid anesthesia (49.3%), and total venous anesthesia (1.4%). There was 39.4% failure of peripheral nerve block and 11.8% of subarachnoid anesthesia. Adverse events (8.7%) occurred only with subarachnoid blockade (bradycardia, nausea, and transient neurological syndrome). All patients remained in the post-anesthesia care unit until discharge. Age and weight were significantly higher in patients with blockade failure (ROC cutoff point of 23.5 years and 59.5 kg) and blockade failure was more frequent in the presence of increased idiopathic creatine kinase. Conclusion: Anesthesia with non-triggering agents has been shown to be safe in patients with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Variables such as age, weight, and history of increased idiopathic creatine kinase may be useful in selecting the anesthetic technique for this group of patients.


Malignant hyperthermia; Anesthesia; Nerve block


Introdução: Hipertermia maligna é uma doença farmacogenética autossômica dominante, caracterizada por crise hipermetabólica desencadeada por anestésicos halogenados e/ou succinilcolina. O padrão para diagnóstico da suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna é o teste de contratura muscular in vitro em resposta ao halotano-cafeína, para o qual é necessária biopsia muscular sob anestesia. Descrevemos uma série de anestesias sem agentes desencadeantes na hipertermia maligna e comparamos bloqueios de nervo periférico e anestesias subaracnóideas. Método: Foram analisados os prontuários/fichas anestésicas de 69 pacientes suspeitos de susceptibilidade à hipertermia maligna, submetidos à biópsia muscular para teste de contratura muscular in vitro durante sete anos. Analisamos dados demográficos, indicação para investigação de hipertermia maligna, resultado do teste de contratura muscular in vitro e dados da cirurgia/anestesia/recuperação. Resultados: Amostra com 34 ± 13,7 anos, 60,9% mulheres, 65,2% de teste de contratura muscular in vitro positivos. Técnicas empregadas: 47,8% bloqueios de nervo periférico (femoral e cutâneo femoral lateral, latência 65 ± 41 minutos), 49,3% anestesias subaracnóideas e 1,4% anestesia venosa total. Falha em 39,4% dos bloqueios de nervo periférico e 11,8% das anestesias subaracnóideas. Eventos adversos (8,7%) como bradicardia, náuseas e síndrome neurológica transitória só ocorreram com bloqueio subaracnóideo. Todos os pacientes permaneceram na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica até liberação. Idade e peso foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com falha no bloqueio (ponto de corte da curva ROC de 23,5 anos e 59,5 Kg) e esta foi mais frequente na presença de aumento idiopático de creatinoquinase. Conclusão: Anestesia com agentes não desencadeantes mostrou-se segura em pacientes suscetíveis à hipertermia maligna. Variáveis como idade, peso e antecedente de aumento idiopático de creatinoquinase podem ser úteis para selecionar a técnica anestésica nesse grupo.


Hipertermia maligna; Anestesia; Bloqueio nervoso


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