Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2018.08.003
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Combined spinal-epidural block for labor analgesia. Comparative study with continuous epidural block

Bloqueio combinado raquiperidural para analgesia de parto. Estudo comparativo com bloqueio peridural contínuo

Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Vanessa Henriques Carvalho; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Rosa Inês Costa Pereira

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: Lumbar epidural block is an effective and routinely used technique for labor pain relief, and the combined spinal-epidural block has the benefit of using lower doses of local anesthetics and rapid onset of analgesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two anesthetic techniques: combined spinal-epidural block and continuous epidural block in pregnant women for labor analgesia. Methods: Eighty patients, ASA II and III, with cephalic presentation and cervical dilation between 5 and 6 cm, undergoing labor analgesia, allocated in two groups according to the anesthetic technique: combined spinal-epidural (GI) and continuous epidural (GII). Pain severity before the blockade, time to complete analgesia, degree of motor blockade, time to full cervical dilation, duration of the second stage of labor, pain severity during the 1st and 2nd stage of labor, type of delivery, use of oxytocin during labor, maternal cardiocirculatory and respiratory parameters and adverse events, and neonatal repercussions were recorded. Results: At the time of anesthesia, pain severity was similar in both groups. Pain relief was faster in GI (4.5 ± 1.5 min) when compared to GII (11.6 ± 4.6 min) p = 0.01; pain scores in the first and second stages of delivery were lower in GI (0.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.7, respectively) when compared to GII (1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.5, respectively), with p = 0.01 only in the first stage of labor; there was need for local anesthetics supplementation in GII; there were more frequent spontaneous deliveries in GI (80% of patients) than in GII (50%) (p = 0.045) and more frequent use of instrumental (p = 0.03) in GII (12 patients) compared to GI (4 patients); the frequency of cesarean deliveries was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in Group II than in Group I, with 4 cases in GI and 8 cases in GII; absence of maternal cardiocirculatory and respiratory changes and neonatal repercussions; more frequent pruritus in GI (10 patients) and (0 patients in GII) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The combined blockade proved to be effective with better quality of analgesia and greater comfort for pregnant women, constituting a good option for the practice of obstetric analgesia.

Keywords

Spinal anesthesia, Combined spinal-epidural, Continuous epidural, Labor analgesia, Fetal and obstetric outcomes

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: O bloqueio peridural lombar constitui técnica eficaz e rotineiramente empregada para alívio da dor do parto e o bloqueio combinado raquiperidural tem como benefícios o emprego de doses menores de anestésicos locais e rápido início de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a eficácia e a segurança de duas técnicas anestésicas: bloqueio combinado raquiperidural e peridural contínua em grávidas submetidas à analgesia de parto. Método: Oitenta gestantes, ASA 2 e 3, apresentação cefálica e dilatação cervical entre cinco e seis centímetros, submetidas à analgesia de parto, distribuídas em dois grupos de acordo com a técnica anestésica: técnica combinada raquiperidural (GI) e peridural contínua (GII). Avaliaram-se: intensidade de dor antes do bloqueio; tempo para completa analgesia; grau do bloqueio motor; tempo para dilatação cervical total; duração do 2° estágio do trabalho de parto; intensidade de dor durante o 1° e o 2° estágio do trabalho de parto; tipo de parto; uso de ocitocina durante trabalho de parto; parâmetros cardiocirculatórios, respiratórios e eventos adversos maternos; repercussões neonatais. Resultados: No momento da anestesia a intensidade de dor era semelhante em ambos os grupos. O alívio da dor foi mais rápido no GI (4,5 ± 1,5 min) quando comparado com o GII (11,6 ± 4,6 min) p = 0,01; os escores de dor no primeiro e segundo estágios de parto foram menores no GI (0,9 ± 0,3) e (1,8 ± 0,7) quando comparados com o GII (1,9 ± 0,6) e (2,2 ± 0,5) com p = 0,01 somente no primeiro estágio de trabalho de parto; houve necessidade de complementação com anestésicos locais no GII; partos espontâneos mais frequentes em GI (80% das pacientes) do que em GII (50%) p = 0,045 e instrumentais mais frequentes (p = 0,03) em GII (12 pacientes) quando comparadas com o GI (quatro pacientes); a frequência de partos cesáreos foi significativamente maior (p = 0,02) no Grupo II do que no Grupo I, quatro casos no GI e oito no GII; ausência de alterações cardiocirculatórias e respiratórias maternas e repercussões neonatais; prurido mais frequente no GI (10 pacientes) e (0 paciente no GII) p = 0,02. Conclusão: O bloqueio combinado mostrou-se eficaz com melhor qualidade de analgesia e maior conforto às gestantes, constitui boa opção para a prática de analgesia obstétrica.

Palavras-chave

Anestesia espinhal, Raquiperidural combinada, Peridural contínua, Analgesia de parto, Resultados fetais e obstétricos

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