Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.08.003
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Correlation between oro and hypopharynx shape and position with endotracheal intubation difficulty

Correlação entre os formatos da orofaringe e hipofaringe e posicionamento em intubação endotraqueal difícil

Daher Rabadi; Ahmad Abu Baker; Mohannad Al-Qudah

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Abstract

Background and objective: Prediction of intubation difficulty can save patients from major preoperative morbidity or mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the correlation between oro-hypo pharynx position, neck size, and length with endotracheal intubation difficulty. The study also explored the diagnostic value of Friedman Staging System in prediction cases with difficult intubation. Method: The consecutive 500 ASA (I, II) adult patients undergoing elective surgery were evaluated for oro and hypopharynx shape and position by modified Mallampati, Cormack and Lehane score as well as Friedman obstructive sleep apnea classification systems. Neck circumference and length were also measured. All cases were intubated by a single anesthesiologist who was uninformed of the above evaluation and graded intubation difficulty in visual analog score. Correlation between these findings and difficulty of intubation was assessed. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values were also reported. Results: Cormack-Lehane grade had the strongest correlation with difficulty of intubation followed by Friedman palate position. Friedman palate position was the most sensitive and had higher positive and negative predictive values than modified Mallampati classification. Cormack-Lehane grade was found to be the most specific with the highest negative predictive value among the four studied classifications. Conclusion: Friedman palate position is a more useful, valuable and sensitive test compared to the modified Mallampati screening test for pre-anesthetic prediction of difficult intubation where its involvement in Multivariate model may raise the accuracy and diagnostic value of preoperative assessment of difficult airway.

Keywords

Intubation, Airway, Pharynx, Classification, Correlation, Value

Resumo

Justificativa e objetivo: A previsão de intubação difícil no período pré-operatório pode salvar pacientes de morbidade e mortalidade graves. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a correlação entre intubação endotraqueal difícil e a posição oro-hipofaríngea, circunferência e comprimento do pescoço. O estudo também avaliou o valor diagnóstico do Sistema de Classificação de Friedman para prever casos de intubação difícil. Método: Avaliamos consecutivamente o formato oro-hipofaríngeo e a posição de 500 pacientes adultos (ASA I-II) submetidos à cirurgia eletiva, usando o escore de Mallampati modificado, escore de Cormack e Lehane, bem como o sistema de classificação de Friedman para apneia obstrutiva do sono. A circunferência e comprimento do pescoço também foram mensurados. Todos os casos foram intubados por um único anestesiologista que desconhecia o estudo e classificou a intubação difícil em escala visual analógica. A correlação entre os achados e intubação difícil foi avaliada. Sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivos e negativos também foram registrados. Resultados: A classificação em graus de Cormack e Lehane apresentou uma correlação mais forte com intubação difícil, seguida pela posição palatal de Friedman. A posição palatal de Friedman foi a mais sensível e apresentou valores preditivos positivos e negativos mais altos que a escala de Mallampati modificada. Descobrimos que o grau de Cormack e Lehane foi o mais específico e apresentou o maior valor preditivo negativo entre as quatro classificacões estudadas. Conclusão: A posição palatal de Friedman é um teste mais útil, valioso e sensível comparado ao teste modificado de triagem de Mallampati para prever intubação difícil pré-anestesia e o seu envolvimento no modelo multivariado pode aumentar a precisão e o valor diagnóstico da avaliação pré-operatória de via aérea difícil.

Palavras-chave

Intubação, Vias aéreas, Faringe, Classificação, Correlação, Valor

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