Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.07.014
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Comparison of metaraminol, phenylephrine and ephedrine in prophylaxis and treatment of hypotension in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia

Avaliação comparativa entre metaraminol, fenilefrina e efedrina na profilaxia e no tratamento da hipotensão em cesarianas sob raquianestesia

Fábio Farias de Aragão; Pedro Wanderley de Aragão; Carlos Alberto de Souza Martins; Natalino Salgado Filho; Elizabeth de Souza Barcelos Barroqueiro

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Abstract

Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, with deleterious effects on the fetus and mother. Among the strategies aimed at minimizing the effects of hypotension, vasopressor administration is the most efficient. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of phenylephrine, metaraminol, and ephedrine in the prevention and treatment of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety pregnant women, not in labor, undergoing cesarean section were randomized into three groups to receive a bolus followed by continuous infusion of vasopressor as follows: phenylephrine group (50 μg + 50 μg/min); metaraminol group (0.25 mg + 0.25 mg/min); ephedrine group (4 mg + 4 mg/min). Infusion dose was doubled when systolic blood pressure decreased to 80% of baseline and a bolus was given when systolic blood pressure decreased below 80%. The infusion dose was divided in half when systolic blood pressure increased to 120% and was stopped when it became higher. The incidence of hypotension, nausea and vomiting, reactive hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, Apgar scores, and arterial cord blood gases were assessed at the 1st and 5th minutes.There was no difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, reactive hypertension, infusion discontinuation, atropine administration or Apgar scores. Rescue boluses were higher only in the ephedrine group compared to metaraminol group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis were greater in the ephedrine group. The three drugs were effective in preventing hypotension; however, fetal effects were more frequent in the ephedrine group, although transient.

Keywords

Anesthesia, Cesarean section, Spinal anesthesia, Hypotension, Vasoconstrictor agents

Resumo

Hipotensão materna é uma complicação comum após raquianestesia em cirurgia cesariana, trazendo efeitos deletérios para o feto e a mãe. Entre as estratégias com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos da hipotensão, a administração de vasopressores é a mais eficiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da fenilefrina, metaraminol e efedrina na prevenção e tratamento de hipotensão após raquianestesia em cirurgia cesariana. Noventa gestantes que não estavam em trabalho de parto submetidas à cesariana eletiva foram randomizadas em três grupos para receber um bolus, seguido de infusão contínua de vasopressor da seguinte forma: Grupo Fenilefrina (50 μg + 50 μg/min); Grupo Metaraminol (0,25 mg + 0,25 mg/min); Grupo Efedrina (4 mg + 4 mg/min). A dose da infusão foi dobrada quando a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) decresceu até 80% dos valores basais e um bolus foi dado quando a PAS decresceu para valores abaixo de 80%. A dose da infusão foi dividida ao meio quando a PAS aumentou até 120% e foi interrompida quando mais elevada. Foram analisadas as incidências de hipotensão, náuseas e vômitos, hipertensão reativa, bradicardia, taquicardia e escores de Apgar no primeiro e quinto minutos e gases de sangue arterial do cordão umbilical.Não houve diferenças nas incidências de hipotensão, bradicardia, hipertensão reativa, interrupção da infusão, administração de atropina ou escores de Apgar. A administração de bolus de resgate foram superiores apenas no Grupo Efedrina em comparação com Metaraminol. A incidência de náuseas e vômitos e acidose fetal foram superiores no Grupo Efedrina. Os três fármacos foram eficazes na prevenção de hipotensão, mas repercussões fetais foram mais frequentes no Grupo Efedrina, embora transitórias.

Palavras-chave

Anestesia, Cesariana, Raquianestesia, Hipotensão, Agentes vasoconstritores

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