Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Subarachnoid clonidine and trauma response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

Clonidina subaracnóidea e resposta ao trauma em cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea

Claudia Gissi da Rocha Ferreira; Sérgio Bernardo Tenório

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Background and objectives: The intense trauma response triggered by cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluated whether clonidine, a drug of the class of α-2 agonists, administered by spinal route, without association with local anesthetics or opioids, reduces this response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Method: A total of 27 patients between 18 and 75 years old, divided by non-blinded fashion into a control group (15) and a clonidine group (12), were studied. All patients underwent identical technique of general anesthesia. Then, only the clonidine group received 1 μg kg−1 clonidine by spinal route. Levels of blood glucose, lactate and cortisol were measured at three consecutive times: T1, at the time of installation of invasive arterial pressure; T2, 10 min after the first dose for cardioplegia; and T3, at the time of skin suture; and troponin I values at T1 and T3. The variation of results between T2-T1, T3-T2, and T3-T1 was also evaluated. Results: There was a statistically significant difference only with respect to the variation in blood glucose in the clonidine group: T3-T2, p = 0.027 and T3-T1, p = 0.047. Conclusions: Spinal clonidine at a dose of 1 μg kg−1 did not decrease blood measurements of troponin, cortisol, or lactate. Blood glucose suffered a more moderate variation during the procedure in the clonidine group. This fact, already reported in the literature, requires further investigation to be clarified.


Clonidine, Traumatic stress, Cardiac surgery


Justificativa e objetivos: A intensa resposta ao trauma desencadeada pela circulação extracorpórea pode conduzir ao aumento da morbimortalidade. 0 presente estudo avaliou se a clonidina, fàrmaco da classe dos α-2 agonistas, por via raquidiana, sem associação com anestésicos locais ou opioides, reduz essa resposta em cirurgias cardíacas com uso de circulação extracorpórea. Método: Estudaram-se 27 pacientes entre 18 e 75 anos, separados de modo não encoberto em grupo controle (15) e grupo clonidina (12). Todos foram submetidos a técnica idéntica de anestesia geral. A seguir, apenas o grupo clonidina recebeu 1−1 de clonidina por via raquidiana. Foram dosados os valores de glicemia, lactato e cortisol em trés tempos consecutivos: T1, no momento da instalação da pressão arterial invasiva (PAM); T2, dez minutos após a primeira dose de cardioplegia; e T3 na sutura da pele, bem como os valores de troponina I em T1 e T3. Avaliou-se também a variação dos resultados entre: T2-T1; T3-T2 e T3-T1. Resultados: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa apenas quanto à variação da glicemia no grupo clonidina: T3-T2 valor de p=0,027 e T3-T1 valor de p = 0,047. Conclusões: A clonidina espinhal em dose de 1 μ−1 não diminuiu as dosagens sanguineas de troponina, cortisol ou lactato. A glicemia sofreu urna menor variação durante o procedimento no grupo clonidina. Esse fato, já registrado na literatura, necessita de maiores investigações para ser esclarecido.


Clonidina, Estresse traumàtico, Cirurgia cardíaca


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