Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.04.012
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Subarachnoid clonidine and trauma response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

Clonidina subaracnóidea e resposta ao trauma em cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea

Claudia Gissi da Rocha Ferreira; Sérgio Bernardo Tenório

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Abstract

Background and objectives: The intense trauma response triggered by cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluated whether clonidine, a drug of the class of α-2 agonists, administered by spinal route, without association with local anesthetics or opioids, reduces this response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Method: A total of 27 patients between 18 and 75 years old, divided by non-blinded fashion into a control group (15) and a clonidine group (12), were studied. All patients underwent identical technique of general anesthesia. Then, only the clonidine group received 1 μg kg−1 clonidine by spinal route. Levels of blood glucose, lactate and cortisol were measured at three consecutive times: T1, at the time of installation of invasive arterial pressure; T2, 10 min after the first dose for cardioplegia; and T3, at the time of skin suture; and troponin I values at T1 and T3. The variation of results between T2-T1, T3-T2, and T3-T1 was also evaluated. Results: There was a statistically significant difference only with respect to the variation in blood glucose in the clonidine group: T3-T2, p = 0.027 and T3-T1, p = 0.047. Conclusions: Spinal clonidine at a dose of 1 μg kg−1 did not decrease blood measurements of troponin, cortisol, or lactate. Blood glucose suffered a more moderate variation during the procedure in the clonidine group. This fact, already reported in the literature, requires further investigation to be clarified.

Keywords

Clonidine, Traumatic stress, Cardiac surgery

Resumo

Justificativa e objetivos: A intensa resposta ao trauma desencadeada pela circulação extracorpórea pode conduzir ao aumento da morbimortalidade. 0 presente estudo avaliou se a clonidina, fàrmaco da classe dos α-2 agonistas, por via raquidiana, sem associação com anestésicos locais ou opioides, reduz essa resposta em cirurgias cardíacas com uso de circulação extracorpórea. Método: Estudaram-se 27 pacientes entre 18 e 75 anos, separados de modo não encoberto em grupo controle (15) e grupo clonidina (12). Todos foram submetidos a técnica idéntica de anestesia geral. A seguir, apenas o grupo clonidina recebeu 1 mg.kg−1 de clonidina por via raquidiana. Foram dosados os valores de glicemia, lactato e cortisol em trés tempos consecutivos: T1, no momento da instalação da pressão arterial invasiva (PAM); T2, dez minutos após a primeira dose de cardioplegia; e T3 na sutura da pele, bem como os valores de troponina I em T1 e T3. Avaliou-se também a variação dos resultados entre: T2-T1; T3-T2 e T3-T1. Resultados: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa apenas quanto à variação da glicemia no grupo clonidina: T3-T2 valor de p=0,027 e T3-T1 valor de p = 0,047. Conclusões: A clonidina espinhal em dose de 1 μg.kg−1 não diminuiu as dosagens sanguineas de troponina, cortisol ou lactato. A glicemia sofreu urna menor variação durante o procedimento no grupo clonidina. Esse fato, já registrado na literatura, necessita de maiores investigações para ser esclarecido.

Palavras-chave

Clonidina, Estresse traumàtico, Cirurgia cardíaca

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