Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjan.2013.04.002
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Bloqueio do nervo femoral: avaliação da analgesia pós-operatória na operação de reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior

Femoral nerve block: assessment of postoperative analgesia in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Úrsula Bueno do Prado Guirro; Elizabeth Milla Tambara; Fernanda Reinaldi Munhoz

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Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A operação de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho (RLCA) pode ter pós-operatório doloroso. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar se o emprego do bloqueio do nervo femoral (BNF) associado à raquianestesia melhoraria o tratamento da dor pós-operatória na RLCA; os objetivos secundários foram avaliar solicitação do tramadol e eventos adversos. MÉTODO: 53 pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos A e B. No Grupo A, 26 receberam raquianestesia e no Grupo B, 27 receberam raquianestesia e BNF. Todos receberam analgesia multimodal e poderiam solicitar analgésico de resgate a qualquer momento. As avaliações ocorreram em 6, 12 e 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não apresentaram diferenças quanto às variáveis demográficas e clínico-cirúrgicas. A intensidade da dor não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Escores médios de dor foram mais elevados 12 horas no Grupo A e não houve variação no Grupo B; 55,6% relataram dor moderada no Grupo A e 53,8% dor leve no Grupo B. Não houve diferença na solicitação de tramadol. Os eventos adversos não foram graves: 80,8% dos pacientes do Grupo B apresentaram bloqueio motor da coxa e dois caíram. CONCLUSÕES: A analgesia foi mais efetiva com a associação de raquianestesia e BNF, que permitiu melhor controle da dor pós-operatória na avaliação em 12 horas após a anestesia. Não houve diferença na solicitação do tramadol. Os eventos adversos apresentados pelos pacientes neste estudo não foram graves, porém deve-se estar atento à paralisia motora e à possibilidade de queda dos pacientes quando o BNF for feito.

Palavras-chave

Analgesia pós-operatória, Bloqueio do nervo femoral, Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior, Raquianestesia, Tramadol, Evento adverso

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may be painful in the postoperative period. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of femoral nerve block (FNB) associated with spinal anesthesia would improve the postoperative pain treatment in ACLR and the secondary objectives were to evaluate tramadol request and adverse events. METHOD: 53 patients were randomly divided into two groups: GA (n =26) received spinal anesthesia and GB (n = 27) received spinal anesthesia and FNB. All patients received multimodal analgesia and rescue analgesics could be requested anytime. Assessments were performed at 6, 12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: There was no difference between both groups regarding demographic and clinical-surgical variables. There was no difference between groups regarding pain intensity. Mean pain scores were higher at 12 hours in GA and there was no change in GB; 55.6% of patients reported moderate pain in GA and 53.8% mild pain in GB. There was no difference regarding tramadol request. There were no serious adverse events: 80.8% of patients in GB had motor block of the thigh and two fell. CONCLUSIONS: Analgesia was more effective with the combination of spinal and FNB, which allowed better control of postoperative pain, assessed 12 hours after anesthesia. There was no difference in tramadol request. Patients in this study had no serious adverse events; however, one must be attentive to motor paralysis and the possibility of falling when FNB is performed.

Keywords

Postoperative analgesia, Femoral nerve block, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Spinal anesthesia, Tramadol, Adverse event

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