Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://bjan-sba.org/article/doi/10.1016/j.bjan.2012.09.003
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Scientific Article

Efeitos antimicrobianos de cetamina em combinação com propofol: um estudo in vitro

The antimicrobial effects of ketamine combined with propofol: an in vitro study

Zekine Begec; Aytac Yucel; Yusuf Yakupogulları; ; Mehmet Ali Erdogan; Yucel Duman; Mahmut Durmus; M. Ozcan Ersoy

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Resumo

EXPERIÊNCIA E OBJETIVOS: Cetamina e propofol são os anestésicos gerais que também exibem efeitos antimicrobianos e promotores do crescimento microbiano, respectivamente. Embora esses agentes sejam frequentemente aplicados em combinação durante o uso clínico, não há dados sobre seu efeito total no crescimento microbiano na administração combinada. Nesse estudo, investigamos o crescimento de alguns microrganismos em uma mistura de cetamina e propofol. MÉTODO: Nesse estudo, utilizamos cepas padronizadas: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans. Realizamos uma análise de tempo-crescimento para avaliar as taxas de crescimento microbiano em propofol 1%. A atividade antimicrobiana de cetamina, isoladamente e em propofol, foi estudada pelo método de microdiluição. RESULTADOS: Em propofol, as cepas estudadas cresceram de concentrações de 10³-10(4) ufc/mL para > 10(5) ufc/mL, dentro de 8-16 horas, dependendo do tipo de microrganismo. Foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) (para Candida, concentração fungicida mínima) de cetamina, como se segue (CIM, CBM): E. coli 312,5, 312,5 µg/mL; S.aureus 19,5, 156 µg/mL; P. aeruginosa 312,5, 625 µg/mL; e C. albicans 156, 156 µg/mL. Na mistura cetamina + propofol, cetamina exibiu atividade antimicrobiana para E. coli, P. aeruginosa e C. albicans em CBMs a 1250, 625 e 625 µg/mL, respectivamente. O crescimento de S. aureus não foi inibido nessa mistura (concentração de cetamina = 1250 µg/mL). CONCLUSÃO: Cetamina preservou sua atividade antimicrobiana de maneira dose-dependente contra alguns microrganismos em propofol, que é robusta solução promotora de crescimento microbiano. O uso combinado de cetamina e propofol na aplicação clínica de rotina pode diminuir o risco de infecção causada por contaminação acidental. Entretanto, deve-se ter em mente que cetamina não pode reduzir todas as ameaças patogênicas na mistura com propofol.

Palavras-chave

Atividade antimicrobiana, Cloreto de benzetônio, Cetamina, Cetofol, Propofol

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ketamine and propofol are the general anesthetics that also have antimicrobial and microbial growth-promoting effects, respectively. Although these agents are frequently applied together during clinical use, there is no data about their total effect on microbial growth when combined. In this study, we investigated some organisms' growth in a ketamine and propofol mixture. METHOD: We used standard strains including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in this study. Time-growth analysis was performed to assess microbial growth rates in 1% propofol. Antimicrobial activity of ketamine, alone and in propofol was studied with microdilution method. RESULTS: In propofol, studied strains grew from 10³-10(4) cfu/mL to >10(5) cfu/mL concentrations within 8-16 hours depending on the type of organism. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) (for candida, minimal fungicidal concentration) of ketamine were determined as follows (MIC, MBC): E.coli 312.5, 312.5 µg/mL; S.aureus 19.5, 156 µg/mL; P.aeruginosa 312.5, 625 µg/mL; and C.albicans 156, 156 µg/ml. In ketamine+propofol mixture, ketamine exhibited antimicrobial activity to E.coli, P.aeruginosa and C.albicans as MBCs at 1250, 625 and 625 µg/mL, respectively. Growth of S. aureus was not inhibited in this mixture (ketamine concentration=1250 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: Ketamine has sustained its antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner against some organisms in propofol, which is a strong microbial growth-promoting solution. Combined use of ketamine and propofol in routine clinical application may reduce the risk of infection caused by accidental contamination. However, one must keep in mind that ketamine cannot reduce all pathogenic threats in propofol mixture.

Keywords

Antimicrobial activity, Benzethonium chloride, Ketamine, Ketofol, Propofol

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